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Physiological and Content Considerations for a Second Low Frequency Channel for Bass Management, Subwoofers, and LFE

By convention, frequencies below 90Hz produce no interaural cues useful for spatial sound or localization. Yet some claim they are able to hear a difference between a single subwoofer channel (whether or not to more than one subwoofer) and two (“stereo bass”). Reported research supports the Jeffress model of interaural time difference (ITD) determination in brain structures, and extending the accepted lower frequency limit of interaural phase difference (IPD). Meanwhile, uncorrelated very low frequencies (VLF<100Hz) exist in nearly all existing multi-channel music and movie content. The audibility, recording, and reproduction of uncorrelated VLF are explored in theory and experiments.

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