Fundamental concepts in testing audio equipment are reviewed, beginning with an examination of the various equipment architectures in common use. Several basic analog and digital audio measurements are described. Tradeoffs inherent in the various approaches, the technologies used, and their limitations are discussed. Novel techniques employing multitone signals for fast audio measurements are examined and applications of sampling frequency correction technology to this and conventional FFT measurements are covered. Synchronous averaging of FFTs and the subsequent noise reduction are demonstrated. The need for simultaneity of digital and analog generation is presented using converter measurements as an example.
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