First Locanthi's horn analog is shown to be well suited for modeling transmission-line loudspeaker systems. The circuit can accommodate arbitrary flare shapes and allows damping to be included as any combination of series and parallel losses. Four emperical parameters are then developed to simulate the effects of lining or stuffing. Finally three optimized transmission-line geometries are presented, which can be described in terms of generalized alignments using familiar Thiele-Small parameters. Using one of these new alignments, a transmission line can match the frequency response and efficiency of a comparable closed box, but with reduced cone excursion.
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