The application of voltage-controlled oscillators, amplifiers, and filters in the composition of electronic music is discussed, and circuits for each of these instruments are described. The voltage-controlled oscillator incorporates an exponential control voltage/frequency relationship and supplies sawtooth, triangular, and pulse waveforms simultaneously. The voltage-controlled amplifier is completely balanced and direct-coupled, and has a gain range in excess of 80 db. The voltage-controlled bandpass filter employs a voltage-controlled amplifier and passive components in a closed loop to form an equivalent parallel tuned circuit with variable resonant frequency.
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