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A Measurement Method of Hum Modulation Caused by a Loudspeaker's Electromotive Force

This paper describes a new kind of power amplifier distortion caused by a loudspeaker's electromotive force. This distortion is a type of intermodulation distortion that arises from modulation of the power frequency and its harmonics by the reverse current flowing from the loudspeaker to the amplifier. This problem is pronounced around a speaker's resonant frequency, where the reverse current can nearly equal the applied current. Unlike conventional distortion measurements, our method uses test signals fed to the output terminals at which the distortion is measured. This paper also describes the relationship between the type of loudspeaker and the amount of electromotive current.

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