Objective and subjective comparative investigations of the loudness of speech and music in radio broadcasts have been carried out. Relationships between loudness and PPM and VU-meter readings have also been analyzed. Subjective investigations were performed in two ways, by direct listening to received radio programs and by listening to the tapes with recorded programs. Objective were performed using the loudness analyzer which simulates the behavior of the human ear, to the accuracy provided by E. Zwicker's method, and also the different listening conditions of a diffuse and frontal sound field. Possibilities for improving the loudness balance of speech and music in radio broadcasts are discussed and some guidelines proposed.
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