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How Much Delay Is Too Much Delay ?

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Modern real-time digital audio communication systems rely heavily on discrete time processing at every stage of the journey from source to distinction. More often than not implemented in the ubiquitous DSP, processes such as A/D & D/A conversion, audio compression for data rate reduction, sample rate conversion, reverse or inverse multiplexing, transfer of data through the layers of a telecomm protocol stack, etc, all contribute to the end-to-end delay of the audio. Knowledge of what causes these delays can aid system designers and integrators in setting up audio links that minimise such delays. This paper examines the practical details of why and where these delays occur, under the following headings : Physiology of Delay Converison Audio Bit Rate Reduction Data Transmission Circuits System View

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AES - Audio Engineering Society