Phantom images that rely on interchannel level differences can be produced easily for two-channel stereo. Yet one of the most difficult challenges in production for a five-channel environment is the creation of stable phantom images to the side of the listening position. The addition of simulated early reflection patterns from all five loudspeakers influences the localization of lateral phantom sources. Listening tests were conducted to compare participants' abilities to localize lateral sources under three conditions: power-panned sources alone, sources with simulated early reflection patterns, and simulated early reflection patterns alone (without direct sound). Results compare localization error for the three conditions at different locations and suggest that early reflection patterns alone can be sufficient for source localization.
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