Perceptual audio coding has become a widely-used technique for economic transmission and storage of high-quality audio signals. Audio compression schemes, as known from MPEG-1, 2 and 4 allow encoding with either a constant or a variable bitrate over time. While many applications demand a constant bitrate due to channel characteristics, the use of variable bitrate encoding becomes increasingly attractive e.g.~for Internet Audio and portable audio players. Using such an approach can lead to significant improvements in audio quality compared to traditional constant bitrate encoding, but the consumed average bitrate will generally depend on the compressed audio material. This paper presents investigations into "two-pass encoding" which combines the flexibility of variable bitrate encoding and a predictable target bit consumption.
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