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A Microphone Technique Applying the Principle of Second-Order-Gradient Unidirectionality

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The theoretical basis and a practical implementation of a microphone technique are presented which combines first-order-gradient and second-order-gradient unidirectional characteristics, and allows for a degree of the adjustment of magnitude and polar response. The proposed technique, through use of the second-order-gradient characteristic, extends the high directivity of pickup to low frequencies. This is desirable because most instruments radiate low frequencies omnidirectionally and low-frequency energy is not easily dissipated in a room. The result of this application is a more defined sound with less low-frequency ambient leakage and improved separation.

JAES Volume 32 Issue 7/8 pp. 507-530; August 1984
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AES - Audio Engineering Society