The international body ISO is presently in the phase of standardizing low bit-rate coding of video and audio, drafted as ISO CD 11172 by the ISO/MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group). As far as audio is concerned, a three-layer concept has been developed following the strategy of increasing complexity, delay, and decreasing bit-rate at the same audio performance. This is to make the standard fit various applications with a wide range of different requirements. The need for error concealment occurs particularly in applications where errors might be expected, such as terrestrial and satellite broadcasting, and cable networks, but also in tape recording. Within this paper, error concealment techniques will be proposed in connection with the ISO LAYERSs I and II, which are already in use and where ICs have been announced as available (in June, 1992). Two directions are presently considered: error concealment techniques with full compatibility to the Committee Draft, and those requiring modifications of the bitstream. The compatible techniques might be seen as a compromise to be soon applicable to the widely distributed coding standard and the others as more general proposals in connection with audio bit-rate reduction systems based on sub-band or transform coding.
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