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AES Munich 2009
Paper Session P4

P4 - Recording, Reproduction, and Delivery

Thursday, May 7, 14:00 — 18:30
Chair: Joerg Wuttke

Siegfried Linkwitz, Linkwitz Lab

P4-1 An Expert in Absentia: A Case-Study for Using Technology to Support Recording Studio PracticeAndrew King, University of Hull - Scarborough, North Yorkshire, UK
This paper examines the use of a Learning Technology Interface (LTI) to support the completion of a recording workbook with audio examples over a ten-week period. The VLE provided contingent support to studio users for technical problems encountered in the completion of four recording tasks. Previous research has investigated how students collaborate and problem-solve during a short session in the recording studio using technology as a contingent support tool. In addition, online message boards have been used to record problems encountered when completing a prescribed task (critical-incident recording). A mixed-methods case study approach was used in this study. The students interactions within the LTI were logged (i.e., frequency, time, duration, type of support) and their feedback was elicited via a user questionnaire at the end of the project. Data for this study demonstrates that learning technology can be a successful support tool and also highlights the frequency and themes concerning the types of recording practice information accessed by the learners.
Convention Paper 7669 (Purchase now)

P4-2 Recording and Reproduction over Two Loudspeakers as Heard Live—Part 1: Hearing, Loudspeakers, and RoomsSiegfried Linkwitz, Linkwitz Lab - Corte Madera, CA, USA; Don Barringer, Linkwitz Lab - Arlington, CA, USA
Innate hearing processes define the realism that can be obtained from reproduced sound. An unspecified system with two loudspeakers in a room places considerable limitations upon the degree of auditory realism that can be obtained. It has been observed that loudspeakers and room must be hidden from the auditory scene that is evoked in the listener’s brain. Requirements upon the polar response and the output volume capability of the loudspeaker will be discussed. Problems and solutions in designing a three-way, open baffle loudspeaker with piston drivers will be presented. Loudspeakers and listener must be symmetrically placed in the room to minimize the effects of reflections upon the auditory illusion.
Convention Paper 7670 (Purchase now)

P4-3 Recording and Reproduction over Two Loudspeakers as Heard Live—Part 2: Recording Concepts and PracticesDon Barringer, Linkwitz Lab - Arlington, VA, USA; Siegfried Linkwitz, Linkwitz Lab - Corte Madera, CA, USA
For a half century, the crucial interaction between recording engineer and monitor loudspeakers during two-channel stereophonic recording has not been resolved, leaving the engineer to cope with uncertainties. However, recent advances in defining and improving this loudspeaker-room-listener interface have finally allowed objectivity to inform and shape the engineer’s choices. The full potential of the two-channel format is now accessible to the recording engineer, and in a room that is just as normal as most consumers’ rooms. The improved reproduction has also allowed a deeper understanding of the merits and limits of spaced and coincident/near-coincident microphone arrays. As a result of these and earlier observations, a four-microphone array was conceived that exploits natural hearing processes to achieve greater auditory realism from two loudspeakers. A number of insights have emerged from the experiments.
Convention Paper 7671 (Purchase now)

P4-4 Vision and Technique behind the New Studios and Listening Rooms of the Fraunhofer IIS Audio LaboratoryAndreas Silzle, Stefan Geyersberger, Gerd Brohasga, Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS - Erlangen, Germany; Dieter Weninger, Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS - Erlangen, Germany, Innovationszentrum für Telekommunikationstechnik GmbH IZT, Erlangen, Germany; Michael Leistner, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP - Stuttgart, Germany
The new audio laboratory rooms of the Fraunhofer IIS and their technical design are presented here. The vision behind them is driven by the very high demands of a leading edge audio research organization with more than 100 scientists and engineers. The 300 m2 sound studio complex was designed with the intention of providing capabilities that are in combination far more extensive than those available in common audio research or production facilities. The reproduction room for listening tests follows the strict recommendations of ITU-R BS 1116. The results of the qualification measurements regarding direct sound, reflected sound, and steady state sound field will be shown and the construction efforts needed to achieve these values are explained. The connection from all the computers in the server room to more than 70 loudspeakers in the reproduction rooms, other audio interfaces, and the projection screens is done by an audio and video routing system. The architecture of the advanced control software of this routing system is presented. It allows easy and flexible access for each class of user to all the possibilities made available by this completely new system.
Convention Paper 7672 (Purchase now)

P4-5 Advances in National Broadcaster Networks: Exploring Transparent High Definition IPTVMatthew O’Donnell, British Sky Broadcasting - Upminster, UK
British commercial broadcasters are increasing their ability to determine the quality of distribution of audio-over-IP by acquiring and installing next generation national Gigabit networks. This paper explores how broadcasters can use the advances in broadband technology to transparently integrate supplemental on-demand IPTV services with traditional broadcasting transport, which has led to broadcasters being confident in achieving scalable carrier-class quality of service for delivery of high definition media direct to the customer’s set top box.
Convention Paper 7673 (Purchase now)

P4-6 Multi-Perspective Surround Sound Audio RecordingMark J. Sarisky, The University of Texas at Austin - Austin, TX, USA
With the advent of Blu-Ray Disc Audio (BD-Audio), high resolution uncompressed audio recordings can be presented as a consumer product in a variety of surround sound formats. This paper proposes a new take on the recording of live and studio music in surround sound that allows the consumer to benefit from the large capacity of the BD-Audio disc and enjoy the recording from multiple listening perspectives.
Convention Paper 7674 (Purchase now)

P4-7 Sound Intensity-Based Three-Dimensional PanningAkio Ando, Kimio Hamasaki, NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories - Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
Three-dimensional (3-D) panning equipment is essential for the production of 3-D audio content. We have already proposed an algorithm to enable such panning. It generates the input signal to be fed into multichannel loudspeakers so as to realize the same physical properties of sound at the receiving point as those created by a single loudspeaker model of the virtual source. A sound pressure vector is used as the physical property. This paper proposes a new method that uses sound intensity instead of the sound pressure vector and shows that both conventional “vector base amplitude panning” and our previous method come very close to achieving coincidence of sound intensity. A new panning method using four loudspeakers is also proposed.
Convention Paper 7675 (Purchase now)

P4-8 A Practical Comparison of Three Tetrahedral Ambisonic MicrophonesDan Hemingson, Mark Sarisky, The University of Texas at Austin - Austin, TX, USA
This paper compares two low-cost tetrahedral ambisonic microphones, an experimental microphone, and a Core Sound TetraMic with a Soundfield MKV or SPS422B serving as a standard for comparison. Recordings were made in natural environments of live performances, in a recording studio, and in an anechoic chamber. The results of analytical and direct listening tests of these recordings are discussed in this paper. A description of the experimental microphone and the recording setup is included.
Convention Paper 7676 (Purchase now)

P4-9 A New Reference Listening Room for Consumer, Professional, and Automotive Audio ResearchSean Olive, Harman International - Northridge, CA, USA
This paper describes the features, scientific rationale, and acoustical performance of a new reference listening room designed for the purpose of conducting controlled listening tests and psychoacoustic research for consumer, professional, and automotive audio products. The main features of the room include quiet and adjustable room acoustics, a high-quality calibrated playback system, an in-wall loudspeaker mover, and complete automated control of listening tests performed in the room.
Convention Paper 7677 (Purchase now)