AES Los Angeles 2014
Poster Session P10
P10 - Spatial Audio
Friday, October 10, 2:30 pm — 4:00 pm (S-Foyer 1)
P10-1 An Object-Based Audio System for Interactive Broadcasting—Robert Oldfield, University of Salford - Salford, Greater Manchester, UK; Ben Shirley, University of Salford - Salford, Greater Manchester, UK; Jens Spille, Technicolor, Research and Innovation - Hannover, Germany
This paper describes audio recording, delivery, and rendering for an end-to-end broadcast system allowing users free navigation of panoramic video content with matching interactive audio. The system is based on one developed as part of the EU FP7 funded project, FascinatE. The premise of the system was to allow users free navigation of an ultra-high definition 180 degree video panorama for a customizable viewing experience. From an audio perspective the complete audio scene is recorded and broadcast so the rendered sound scene at the user end may be customized to match the view point. The approach described here uses an object-based audio paradigm. This paper presents an overview of the system and describes how such a system is useful for facilitating an interactive broadcast.
Convention Paper 9148 (Purchase now)
P10-2 Effect of Headphone Equalization on Auditory Distance Perception—Kaushik Sunder, Nanyang Technological University - Singapore, Singapore; Ee-Leng Tan, Nanyang Technological University - Singapore, Singapore; Woon-Seng Gan, Nanyang Technological University - Singapore, Singapore
Headphones are not acoustically transparent and thus it affects both the timbral as well as the spatial quality of the input sound source. The effect of the headphones has to be compensated by calculating the inverse of the headphones transfer function and convolving it with the binaurally synthesized audio. Headphone transfer function (HPTF) also depends on the headphone-ear coupling and thus displays high spectral variation between individuals. It has been found that the type of equalization (individual or non-individual) affects the directional perception of the virtual audio reproduced using headphones. However, little investigation has been carried out on the effect of headphone equalization on auditory distance perception. In this paper, we study in detail the perceptual effects of equalization on the auditory distance perception in the proximal region in anechoic conditions. It was found that the equalization of the headphone is critical for good distance perception. The type of equalization (individual or non-individual) did not have a significant effect on the auditory distance perception indicating that the distance perception does not depend on the idiosyncratic features. The effect of repositioning of the headphone on auditory depth perception is also studied in this work.
Convention Paper 9149 (Purchase now)
P10-3 Perceptual Evaluation of Loudspeaker Binaural Rendering Using a Linear Array—Ismael Nawfal, Beats Electronics - Culver City, CA, USA; Joshua Atkins, Apple, Inc. - Culver City, CA, USA; Stephen Nimick, Beats Electronics, LLC - Culver City, CA, USA
In this paper we evaluate two different techniques for spatial rendering using various linear array arrangements and filter lengths in the context of their perceived ability to render a given sound event. The two techniques explored are a recently introduced numerical technique and a conventional crosstalk cancellation system. Extensive perceptual evaluations were conducted in order to evaluate the perceived quality of the proposed and conventional synthesis methods using a binaural representation over headphones. The data were compiled to show the relationship between linear array loudspeaker arrangement, reproduction angle, filter length, and subjective mean opinion scores.
Convention Paper 9151 (Purchase now)
P10-4 Uncorrelated Input Signals Design and Identification with Low-Complexity for Simultaneous Estimation of Head-Related Transfer Functions—Sekitoshi Kanai, Keio University - Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa, Japan; Kentaro Matsui, NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories - Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan; Keio University - Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa, Japan; Yasushige Nakayama, NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories - Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Shuichi Adachi, Keio University - Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa, Japan
In our previous study, we verified that a set of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) can simultaneously be estimated by treating it as a multi-input single-output (MISO) system. However, this leads to a lack of accuracy if appropriate input signals are not chosen and high computational cost is required to estimate. To improve the accuracy, a novel input design method is proposed. Moreover, we also propose a system identifiation method that reduces the space complexity even when the number of measuring directions increases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods was demonstrated through simultaneous estimation experiments of HRTFs.
Convention Paper 9152 (Purchase now)
P10-5 An Evolutionary Algorithm Approach to Customization of Non-Individualized Head Related Transfer Functions—Eric S. Schwenker, Carnegie Mellon University - Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Griffin D. Romigh, Air Force Research Labs - Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH, USA
Currently, the commercialization of high-quality virtual auditory display technology is limited by the costly and time-consuming methods required for obtaining listener-specific head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), directionally-dependent filters that encode spatial information. As such, there is an increased interest in the estimation of individualized HRTFs based on non-acoustic data. This study highlights the capabilities of an evolutionary algorithm method applied to the complex parameter optimization problem that arises when HRTFs are fit to individuals (or populations), rather than acoustically measured. Results suggest the algorithm may be capable of providing HRTFs that improve localization through both personalization of generic HRTFs and the generation of an optimized set of generic HRTFs.
Convention Paper 9153 (Purchase now)
P10-6 Multichannel-Reproduced Music with Height Ambiences: Investigating Physical and Perceptual Factors for Comprehensive 3D Experience—Antonios Karampourniotis, Rochester Institute of Technology - Rochester, NY, USA; Mark J. Indelicato, Rochester Institute of Technology - Rochester, NY, USA; Sungyoung Kim, Rochester Institute of Technology - Rochester, NY, USA; Richard King, McGill University - Montreal, Quebec, Canada; The Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Music Media and Technology - Montreal, Quebec, Canada
This study investigated the influence of the height loudspeaker positions and their signals on perceived overall sound quality. Two layers and a total of seventeen loudspeakers were used in a horizontal and height layer. Twelve participants were asked to subjectively rank and describe eight randomly presented configurations that consisted of four height loudspeakers. A set of inverse filters was generated and applied to remove the room’s acoustic influence and a new set of listeners were asked to evaluate sound quality. The experimental results indicate the significance of the height loudspeaker positioning for a perceived 3D sound field. These results show that the room’s acoustic influence affects desired perceptual characteristics of the sound field and influences subjective preferences.
Convention Paper 9154 (Purchase now)