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AES Amsterdam 2008
Paper Session P11

P11 - Analysis and Synthesis of Sound

Sunday, May 18, 13:00 — 17:30
Chair: Olivier Warusfel, IRCAM - Paris, France

P11-1 An Improved Pattern-Matching Method for Piano Multipitch DetectionLuis Ortiz-Berenguer, Francisco J. Casajus-Quiros, Elena Blanco-Martin, Technical University of Madrid - Madrid, Spain
A previous method presented by the authors carried out multipitch piano sound identification by using a pattern-matching process. In that method, the identification required, besides the matching-metric calculation, both a spectral predetection process and a validation step. Predetection allowed selection of a subset out of the eighty-eight patterns, whereas the validation verified whether the detected note were actually in the analyzed spectrum. Both highly increased the true-positive detections ratio, but they imposed restrictions to the identification of complex real sounds (e.g., two-hands playing). This paper presents an improvement in the method that allows getting rid of both, predetection and validation, by using a modified matching-metric algorithm. This work has been supported by the Spanish National Project TEC2006-13067-C03-01/TCM.
Convention Paper 7383 (Purchase now)

P11-2 Polyphonic Piano Transcription Based on Spectral SeparationJulio Jose Carabias-Orti, Pedro Vera-Candeas, Nicolas Ruiz-Reyes, Raul Mata-Campos, Francisco Jesus Cañadas-Quesada, University of Jaén - Linares, Jaén, Spain
We propose a discriminative model for polyphonic piano transcription. Spectral features are obtained individually for each note. To solve the overlapping partial problem, we apply spectral separation by estimating the spectral envelope for each note. For classifying purposes, support vector machines (SVM) are trained on the spectral energy inferred from these spectral features. We apply a scheme of one-versus-all (OVA) SVM classifiers to discriminate frame-level note instances. To decrease the high frequency notes residual energy due to the downward notes shared partials, a method to cancel the interferences from the downward notes to the upward notes has been developed. The classifier output is filtered with a hidden Markov model. Our approach has been tested with synthesized and real piano recordings obtaining very promising results.
Convention Paper 7384 (Purchase now)

P11-3 Toward a Real-Time Implementation of a Physical Modeling Based Percussion SynthesizerKatarzyna Chuchacz, Roger Woods, Sile O'Modhrain, Queen’s University Belfast - Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
This paper presents work carried out with the objective of designing a novel percussion synthesizer based on a physical model of a plate-based percussion instrument. The algorithm has been implemented in real-time for the first time, on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip allowing a number of parameters such as excitation value, stroke location, and plate stiffness, to be changed in real-time. This presents the player with a number of new modes of playability but requires the definition and design of a flexible interface that gives the extensive access to the sound world of the synthesis model. Details of the hardware implementation architecture are put forward as well as fixed point/floating point computation aspects that impact the instrument’s playability.
Convention Paper 7385 (Purchase now)

P11-4 Dual Noise Suppression in Hearing AidsAnton Schlesinger, Marinus M. Boone, Delft University of Technology - Delft, The Netherlands
A combined processing scheme for the enhancement of speech intelligibility in hearing aids is presented. The approach utilizes an optimized beam-forming method in connection with a biologically inspired processing model of modulation perception and binaural interaction.
Convention Paper 7386 (Purchase now)

P11-5 Automatic Sound Recognition for Security PurposesPawel Zwan, Gdansk University of Technology - Gdansk, Poland
In the paper an automatic sound recognition system is presented. It forms a part of a larger security system developed in order to monitor outdoor conditions for non-typical audio-visual events. The analyzed audio signal is being recorded from a microphone mounted outdoor, thus non-stationary noise of a significant energy may be present in it. In the paper an especially designed algorithm for an outdoor noise reduction is presented, non-typical events in audio stream are automatically detected and parameterized. Parameter values of various audio events are analyzed and sounds are automatically recognized. The automatic recognition accuracy obtained for various feature vectors and some chosen recognition systems is compared. The conclusions are derived and a future plan of experiments is proposed.
Convention Paper 7387 (Purchase now)

P11-6 Multipitch Estimation of Harmonically-Related Event-Notes by Improving Harmonic Matching Pursuit DecompositionFrancisco Jesus Canadas-Quesada, Pedro Vera-Candeas, Nicolas Ruiz-Reyes, Raul Mata-Campos, Julio Jose Carabias-Orti, University of Jaén - Linares, Jaén, Spain
In this paper we propose a note detection approach based on harmonic matching pursuit (HMP) and specifically designed to detect simultaneous notes. However, HMP is not able to decompose harmonic sounds in different harmonic atoms when their fundamental frequencies are harmonically-related. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm, called atomic spectral smoothness (SS), which works over the harmonic atoms obtained by HMP. This algorithm is based on the spectral smoothness principle that supposes that the spectral envelope of a harmonic sound usually forms smooth contours. Our proposal shows promising results for polyphonic musical signals with two harmonically-related note-events.
Convention Paper 7388 (Purchase now)

P11-7 Amplitude Modification Algorithms within the Framework of Physical Modeling and of Haptic Gestural InteractionAlexandros Kontogeorgakopoulos, Claude Cadoz, Institute National Polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble, France
Every underlying technique that has been used for the realization of audio effects since the beginning of electronic and computer music, introduced different types of sound modifications and proposed new ways of control. The advent of digital signal processing has stimulated the audio processing researchers to a great extent; thus a variety of algorithms were designed to provide novel sound modifications. On the other hand, physical modeling and digital simulation formalisms have been principally used for the merely imitation and emulation of older sound processing systems. The aim of this paper is to propose three physical models conceived to offer sound modifications that mainly alter the amplitude of audio signals. The originality of this case is not the resulted audio modifications but their transposition in the framework of physical modeling and digital simulation, which outlines an alternative control procedure.
Convention Paper 7389 (Purchase now)

P11-8 Circular Pitch Space Based Harmonic Change DetectionMarkus Mehnert, Technische Universität Ilmenau - Ilmenau, Germany; Gabriel Gatzsche, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany; Daniel Arndt, Technische Universität Ilmenau - Ilmenau, Germany; Karlheinz Brandenburg, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany
This paper introduces a novel method for detecting harmonic boundaries in musical audio signals. These boundaries are important for chord analysis and between two boundaries is just one particular chord. This event-driven analysis of musical audio signals is a better basis for a following chord analysis than the traditionally frame-based-only concept. The method itself works with circular pitch spaces (CPS). The idea behind CPS is the calculation of parameters that summarize high level aspects of the audio signal such as semantic and music theoretical relationships. Using CPSs entails good results in detecting harmonic changes.
Convention Paper 7390 (Purchase now)

P11-9 Circular Pitch Space Based Musical Tonality AnalysisGabriel Gatzsche, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany; Markus Mehnert, Technische Universität Ilmenau - Ilmenau, Germany; Daniel Arndt, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany; Karlheinz Brandenburg, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany
The focus of this paper is to give an overview of existing circular pitch spaces, its special properties and application for semantic audio analysis. Beside this the symmetry model is proposed as a framework to describe the inter-model relationships between different circular pitch spaces. Similar to color spaces in vision musical pitch spaces organize pitches in a way that semantic/cognitive/theoretical/physical relationships between tones become geometrically apparent. Within the last years pitch spaces were mainly the subject of music theory. But they become more and more interesting for semantic analysis of musical audio signals. Pitch spaces can be applied to key and chord recognition, similarity calculation of musical pieces, genre estimation, tension analysis, or harmonic change detection.
Convention Paper 7391 (Purchase now)

Last Updated: 20080612, tendeloo