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Real-Time Implementation of Double Frequency Modulation (DFM) Synthesis

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A method of digital sound synthesis, double frequency modulation (DFM), is defined in terms of two modulating frequencies. Its spectral equation is derived and the harmonic spacing shown to be dependent on the ratio of the two frequencies. The real-time generation of musical sounds by DFM is demonstrated. DFM offers superior control of harmonic envelopes than simple FM, but with less computational load than asymmetrical frequency modulation (AFM).

JAES Volume 42 Issue 11 pp. 918-926; November 1994
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AES - Audio Engineering Society