Several types of nonlinear distortion in audio instruments are discussed using distortion models. An input pulse is characterized by an asymmetric waveform with zero dc component. Pulse responses corresponding to the s-type nonlinearity, clipping and crossover distortion of an amplifier, the transient distortion of a level compressor, and the s-type nonlinearity of a loudspeaker are illustrated with their spectra. One result shows that the nonlinearities of an amplifier and a loudspeaker are physically distinguishable.
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