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Comparison of Network and Real-Ear Characteristics of the External Ear

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The present paper explores how well the sound pressure transfer characteristic of the ear canal and the acoustic impedance is measured at the eardrum can be represented by electrical analog networks of various degrees of complexity. The number of tee sections required to represent the canal depends on the highest frequency of interest and whether the cross-sectional area of the canal is assumed to be uniform, or otherwise. Two- and four-branch analog networks were found to provide better termination representations than either one- or three-branch networks.

JAES Volume 21 Issue 3 pp. 158-165; April 1973
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AES - Audio Engineering Society