In earlier work (paper 7125) a model was presented which explains that low level voltage audio signals are extra weakened when they are fed through a transformer. This extra weakening is caused by the signal level and frequency dependant inductance of the transformer. Combining measurements and calculations with the threshold of hearing curves, showed that noticeable loss of micro details occurs in the frequency band from 20 Hz to 1 kHz. This paper expands the previous work with measurements on several valve amplifiers, refines the model and makes it applicable to macro signal levels close to saturation of the transformer. Also methods are given to minimize this extra weakening in transformers.
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