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Multiple Description Coding for Audio Transmission Using Conjugate Vector Quantization

This paper explores robustness issues for real-time audio transmission over perturbed networks where multiple paths can be considered. Conjugate Vector Quantization (CVQ), a form of Multiple Description Coding, can improve the resilience to packet losses. This work presents a generalized CVQ structure, where K>2 different conjugate codebooks are trained to create the best resulting codebook. Experiments show that 4-description CVQ performs very closely to unconstrained VQ in clear channel conditions, while providing significant improvements in lossy channels. We also present a fast search algorithm which allows tradeoffs between computational complexity and memory storage at the encoder. This robust quantization scheme can encode sensitive information such as spectral coefficients in a speech coder or a perceptual audio coder.

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