Widening of the stereo base is an attractive feature for stereo sets with closely spaced loudspeakers. This effect is brought about by the introduction of crosstalk in antiphase between the two stereo channels. An analysis of this phenomenon must be based on the directional localization cues of human hearing. The most important cues are interaural differences of level, phase delay, and group delay. We show that the localization directly in front of the loudspeakers is determined by the interaural time delay differences only; to either side of this position interaural level differences play a part, too. At some positions, however, level effects and time delay effects provide conflicting localization cues, leading to a rather vague image of a virtual source. Listening experiments were carried out to verify these results. From this investigation it follows that the introduction of a small time delay in the crosstalk circuit shifts the regions with reinforcing localization cues in the direction of the listener, thus improving the localization of virtual sources in the widened stereo image.
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