AES Journal

Journal of the AES

2003 December - Volume 51 Number 12


Why Are Commercials so Loud? - Perception and Modeling of the Loudness of Amplitude-Compressed Speech (PDF-110K)  
Brian C. J. Moore, Brian R. Glasberg, and Michael A. Stone    1123
According to urban legend, commercials are broadcast with higher loudness levels than programming. An empirical study confirmed that four-band compressed speech sounds louder than uncompressed speech by as much as 3 dB when the rms levels are matched. An audio engineer can control only the perceived loudness of broadcast program material if a loudness meter is available for monitoring the program. However, loudness models require significant computational power if used in real time.  

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Smart Digital Loudspeaker Arrays (PDF-848K)  
M. O. J. Hawksford    1133
With the advent of microminiature transducers, a new class of loudspeaker design fundamentals is required in order to implement programmable radiation beam directions and beamwidths. The primary objective of this study was to develop a processing strategy to obtain a target directional radiation from an array of transducers, each with its own dedicated signal processing. Coherent and diffuse beams can be obtained simultaneously from the same array over a wide frequency range.  

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Localization of 3-D Sound Presented through Headphone-Duration of Sound Presentation and Localization Accuracy (PDF-106K)  
Fang Chen    1163
Of all the spatial parameters that influence localization accuracy, signal duration is often one of the most important. When the duration is long enough, approaching four seconds, accuracy using headphones is comparable to that of free-field or individual HRTFs. The results of this empirical study are consistent with a wide variety of sound samples. Designers of auditory displays must include signal duration as an important parameter.  

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Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing (PDF-616K)  
Vitaliy Fadeyev and Carl Haber    1172
Two-dimensional image processing offers a modern method to reproduce historic mechanical recordings without using a contact transducer. Moreover, because image processing uses information spread over a wide area, it is easier to remove noise, scratches, and other defects. In addition to avoiding additional degradation by contact transducers, optical decoding of groove undulations produces better audio quality. A contact transducer senses mechanical position at a single point in space and time, an image incorporates mechanical information spanning a large area. This approach may allow automated preservation of endangered audio performances of historic value.  

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Comments on "Analysis of Traditional and Reverberation-Reducing Methods of Room Equalization" (PDF-167K)  
John N. Mourjopoulos    1186
Author's Reply (PDF-143K)  
Louis D. Fielder    1189
AES Standards Committee News (PDF-334K)    1193
Digital audio synchronization; listening tests; Internet audio quality  
115th Convention Report, New York (PDF-2.0MB)    1196
     Exhibitors (PDF-268K)    1210
     Program (PDF-329K)    1215
11th Tokyo Regional Convention Report (PDF-229K)    1258
     Exhibitors (PDF-74K)    1261
     Program (PDF-73K)    1262
Education News (PDF-154K)    1276
Call for Nominations for Board of Governors (PDF-9K)    1282
Call for Awards Nominations (PDF-648K)    1283
Bylaws: Audio Engineering Society, Inc. (PDF-20K)    1289
Index to Volume 51 (PDF-81K)    1293
News of the Sections (PDF-192K)    1271
Sound Track (PDF-13K)    1279
Upcoming Meetings (PDF-13K)    1279
New Products and Developments (PDF-27K)    1280
Available Literature (PDF-12K)    1281
Membership Information (PDF-40K)    1285
Advertiser Internet Directory (PDF-36K)    1286
In Memoriam (PDF-58K)    1287
AES Special Publications (PDF-80K)    1317
Sections Contacts Directory (PDF-34K)    1322
AES Conventions and Conferences (PDF-44K)    1328
Cover & Sustaining Members List (PDF-33K)    
VIP List & Editorial Staff (PDF-27K)    
AES 115th Convention Papers (PDF-45K)    
AES 115th Convention Audio Cassettes and MP3s (PDF-263K)    
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