AES Journal

Journal Masthead


The Audio Engineering Society is organized for the purpose of: uniting persons performing professional services in the audio engineering field and its allied arts; collecting, collating, and disseminating scientific knowledge in the field of audio engineering and its allied arts; advancing such science in both theoretical and practical applications; and preparing, publishing, and distributing literature and periodicals relative to the foregoing purposes and policies.


Individuals interested in audio engineering may become members of the AES ( 2019 annual dues are: full members and associate members, $200 for both the printed and online Journal; $125 for online Journal only. Student members: $125 for printed and online Journal; $50 for online Journal only. AES E-Library subscriptions (, members get free access, $1800 for institutions. Sustaining memberships ( are available to persons, corporations, or organizations who wish to support the Society.

Volume Information

(ISSN 1549-4950) Published monthly, except January/February and July/August when published bimonthly, by the Audio Engineering Society, 551 Fifth Ave., Suite 1225, New York, New York 10176, USA, Telephone: +1 212 661 8528. Send Email. Periodical postage paid at New York, New York, and at an additional mailing office. Postmaster: Send address corrections to Audio Engineering Society, 551 Fifth Ave., Suite 1225, New York, New York 10176. The Audio Engineering Society is not responsible for statements made by its contributors.


Copyright© 2019 by the Audio Engineering Society, Inc. It is permitted to quote from this Journal with customary credit to the source.


Individual readers are permitted to photocopy isolated articles for research or other noncommercial use. Permission to photocopy for internal or personal use of specific clients is granted by the Audio Engineering Society to libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), provided that the base fee of $1 per copy plus $.50 per page is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923, USA. 0004-7554/95. Photocopies or PDFs of individual articles may be ordered from AES Headquarters office for $33 per article.

Reprints and Republication

Multiple reproduction or republication of any material in this Journal requires the permission of the Audio Engineering Society. Permission may also be required from the author(s). Inquiries should be sent to the AES Editorial office.


The Journal is available by subscription. 2019 rates are $350, printed; printed plus online $775; online only $595; upgrade from printed or E-Library $465. For information, contact AES Headquarters.


Copies of Vol. 19, No. 1 (1971 January) to the present edition are available on microfilm from University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.


Call the AES Editorial office or send email.


For information on the presentation and processing of manuscripts, see our Author Guidelines.

AES - Audio Engineering Society