AES Warsaw 2015
Paper Session P9

P9 - (Lecture) Perception—Part 1

Friday, May 8, 14:30 — 18:00 (Room: Belweder)

Jürgen Herre, International Audio Laboratories Erlangen - Erlangen, Germany; Fraunhofer IIS - Erlangen, Germany

P9-1 Exposure of Music Students to Sound in Large Music EnsemblesMaciej Jasinski, Warsaw University of Technology - Warsaw, Poland; Agnieszka Pietrzak, Warsaw University of Technology - Warsaw, Poland; Jun Ho Shin, Warsaw University of Technology - Warsaw, Poland; Kyungpook National University - Daegu, Korea; Jan Zera, Warsaw Institute of Technology - Warsaw, Poland
Exposure of musicians to sounds on stage has been a topic of numerous studies over the past 50 years. Nevertheless, the problem is still being researched as inconsistent conclusions have been obtained as to the risk of hearing loss among musicians. In this study exposure of music students to sound was measured during their activity as members of large ensembles: a student symphony orchestra, a wind orchestra, and a big-band. The measurements showed that critical conditions exceeding the permissible daily sound exposure level of 85 dB (A) occurred in the case of musicians playing brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments with a high exposure of the neighboring groups of musicians directly exposed to the sound thereof.
Convention Paper 9276 (Purchase now)

P9-2 Effects of Psychoacoustical Factors on the Perception of Musical Signals in the Context of Environmental SoundscapeZhiyong Deng, Capital Normal University - Beijing, China; University of Sheffield - Sheffield, UK; Jian Kang, University of Sheffield - Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK; Aili Liu, Capital Normal University - Beijing, China
Increasing attention is paid to the benefits of music or music-like signals in soundscape and the soundscape design projects. The perception and awareness of musical signals in the context of environmental soundscape has been suggested with a number of psychoacoustical factors involved. In this paper sound pressure level, noisiness, listeners’ hearing training background, and interaction of the sound sources have been found to influence the perception of consonance, extraction, and awareness of the musical signals in the context of environmental soundscape. This paper also gives a brief discussion on the theoretic definition of music perception and consonance or pleasance.
Convention Paper 9277 (Purchase now)

P9-3 Directional Bands RevisitedRory Wallis, University of Huddersfield - Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, UK; Hyunkook Lee, University of Huddersfield - Huddersfield, UK
Listening tests were undertaken as part of a comprehensive analysis of directional bands. The effects of frequency, loudspeaker position, signal duration, and bandwidth were all considered. The results confirmed the existence of directional bands for 1, 4, and 8 kHz 1/3-octave band bursts. A relationship between pitch and height was also observed, leading to the suggestion that the pitch-height effect and directional bands are part of the same localizational mechanism. Bandwidth was found to have a variable effect on localization, depending on frequency, indicating that the spectral cues used in vertical localization are not of equal bandwidth. Loudspeaker position and signal duration also had some influence on localization judgments although this was found to be somewhat erratic.
Convention Paper 9278 (Purchase now)

P9-4 The Effect of Dynamic Range Compression on Perceived Loudness for Octave Bands of Pink Noise in Relation to Crest FactorMark Wendl, University of Huddersfield - Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, UK; Hyunkook Lee, University of Huddersfield - Huddersfield, UK
A listening test was performed to find the changes in perceived loudness for differing crest factors of octave bands of pink noise as a result of limiting. Each octave band had a continuous and a transient sample of which both had five samples ranging from an uncompressed to a compressed with a difference of 4 dB FS crest factor calculation with increments of 1 dB FS. Two playback levels of 50 dB SPL and 70 dB SPL were used. The perceived loudness followed the RMS change within the pink noise; however certain octave bands appeared to have a non-linear relationship between loudness perception and crest factor changes.
Convention Paper 9279 (Purchase now)

P9-5 Interaction of Perceived Distance and Depth Comparing Audio Playback System and Musical ContextToru Kamekawa, Tokyo University of the Arts - Adachi-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Atsushi Marui, Tokyo University of the Arts - Tokyo, Japan
The effects of the audio playback system and musical context were studied focusing on the perceived distance and the spatial depth. The experiments were carried out using a method of magnitude estimation comparing how near or far the combination of perceived visual and auditory event is, between two performers where one is fixed and another is moved back and forward. In the first experiment, the participants compared the difference among seven distances. In the second experiment, the participants compared direct-to-reverberant ratio (DR ratio) and differences of sound pressure level (SPL) among several musical context such as melody and accompaniment, precedence and chase of almost identical phrases, and non musical stimulus (pulse sound). The results showed that the perceived distance and depth were affected by the existence of image, DR ratio, and SPL. Furthermore these effects are different from musical context and playback system such as the existence of center, rear, and height loudspeakers.
Convention Paper 9280 (Purchase now)

P9-6 Auditory Adaptation in Spatial Listening TasksFlorian Klein, Technische Universität Ilmenau - Ilmenau, Germany; Stephan Werner, Technische Universität Ilmenau - Ilmenau, Germany
This paper investigates auditory adaptation processes in spatial listening tasks for normal hearing people. The auditory adaptation process to altered auditory cues of thirteen participants is monitored and compared to their normal hearing listening performance. Binaural room impulse responses are measured for each participant and for an artificial head. Listeners are trained to artificial binaural room impulse responses in an audio-visual training task. Nine out of thirteen listeners could increase their elevation perception significantly and two of these listeners performed better with trained artificial binaural room impulse responses than with their individual measured room impulse responses regarding elevation error in the median plane. The listening test is supported by an interview that asks for externality.
Convention Paper 9281 (Purchase now)

P9-7 Discrimination of Formant Amplitude in NoiseTomira Rogala, Fryderyk Chopin University of Music - Warsaw, Poland; Piotr Sliwka, Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski University - Warsaw, Poland
The paper reports the results of an experiment carried out to determine the just noticeable difference in timbre of noise. The variations of timbre were obtained through modification of the spectrum envelope of a pink noise—the formant amplitude was increased. The listeners were asked to indicate which one of three noise bursts in a trial sounded different than the remaining two. The results of listeners without musical experience were only a little worse than those obtained from tonmeister students. The skill of detecting slight changes in noise is easy to train and the jnd for formant amplitude change is very low.
Convention Paper 9282 (Purchase now)

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