AES E-Library

AES E-Library Search Results

Search Results (Displaying 1-10 of 62 matches) New Search
Sort by:
                 Records Per Page:

Bulk download - click topic to download Zip archive of all papers related to that topic:   Audio Applications and Technologies    Audio Content Management    Audio Equipment    Audio Processing    Immersive Audio    Perception    Recording, Production, and Reproduction   

 

Non-classical, bounded Fechnerian integration for loudness: contrary to Luce and Edwards, initial loudness-difference-size stipulations are only recouped for linear loudness growth

Document Thumbnail

A major question in sensory science is how a sensation of magnitude F (such as loudness) depends upon a sensory stimulus of physical intensity I (such as a sound-pressure-wave of a particular root-mean-square sound-pressure-level). An empirical just-noticeable sensation difference (ΔF)j at Fj specifies a just-noticeable intensity difference (ΔI)j at Ij. Intensity differences accumulate from a stimulus-detection threshold Ith up to a desired intensity I. Likewise, the corresponding sensation differences are classically presumed to accumulate, accumulating up to F(I) from F(Ith), a non-zero sensation (as suggested by hearing studies) at Ιth. Consequently, sensation growth F(I) can be obtained through Fechnerian integration. Therein, empirically-based relations for the Weber Fraction, ΔI/I, are individually combined with either Fechner’s Law ΔF = Β or Ekman’s Law (ΔF/F) = ɡ; the number of cumulated steps in I is equated to the number of cumulated steps in F, and an infinite series ensues, whose higher-order terms are ignored. Likewise classically ignored are the integration bounds Ith and F(Ith). Here, we deny orthodoxy by including those bounds, allowing hypothetical sensation-growth equations for which the differential-relations ΔF(I) = F(I+ ΔI) - F(I) or (ΔF(I)/F(I)) = (F(II) - F(I))/F(I) do indeed return either Β or ɡ, for linear growth of sensation F with intensity I. Also, 24 sensation-growth equations F(I), which had already been derived by the author likewise using bounded Fechnerian integration (12 equations for the Weber Fraction (ΔI/I), each combined with either Fechner’s Law or with Ekman’s Law), are scrutinized for whether their differential-relations return either Β or ɡ respectively, particularly in the limits (ΔI/I) << 1 and the even-more-extreme limit (ΔI/I) → 0, both of which seem unexplored in the literature. Finally, some relevant claims made by Luce and Edwards (1958) are examined under bounded Fechnerian integration: namely, that three popular forms of the Weber Fraction, when combined with Fechner’s Law, produce sensation-growth equations that subsequently return the selfsame Fechner’s Law. Luce and Edwards (1958) prove to be wrong.

Author:
Affiliation:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Start a discussion about this paper!


Reverberation Slope Ratio Thesis

Document Thumbnail

The Reverberation Slope Ratio (symbolically T60SR6) is a proposed standard for condensing six octaves (63 Hz – 2 kHz) of reverberant decay data into a singular-quotient, qualitative score, for indoor performance, worship and entertainment facilities. It’s a defining metric for scoring and grading the proportional relationship (i.e. ratio) between the longest and shortest of six reverberation (T60) values, measured or predicted, and applied to fully-enclosed venues employing sound reinforcement systems. In practice, Bass Ratio (BR) and Slope Ratio (SR) goals are conflicting concepts. BR goals and calculations were developed to support the idea that acoustic instruments need a little extra assistance, via longer reverberation time, in the low-frequency range. SR goals and calculations support the notion that those same low frequencies do not require extra reverberation time, but rather need to be well contained. Longer low and very low-frequency reverberation is not needed, nor desirable, when an extended-range sound reinforcement system is used. The T60SR6 thesis is offered to advance and define a room’s acoustic design objectives, and provide a simple numeric scoring scale and grading vocabulary, from which acoustical design specifications can be initiated and/or evaluated.

Author:
Affiliation:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Start a discussion about this paper!


Are you there? : A Literature Review of Presence for Immersive Music Reproduction

Document Thumbnail

Immersive audio purportedly enhances the listener’s sensation of presence within virtual experiences. However, providing a concrete definition of ‘presence’ in relation to immersive media can be difficult. In this paper, a multidisciplinary review is given of various conceptualizations of presence, including physical, social, spatial, and environmental. Literature pertaining to factors that influence the sensation of presence in immersive music production is presented. Aspects of reverberation that are hypothesized to contribute to the sensation of presence are explored in depth. Key characteristics of the sound-source and the listener’s perception are highlighted. A discussion of related perceptual attributes (immersion, realism, and naturalness) is included, in an effort to disentangle them from presence. An overview is presented covering methods used to measure presence, focusing on techniques that show applicability to immersive music research. Future work is discussed.

Authors:
Affiliations:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Start a discussion about this paper!


Drum Sample Retrieval from Mixed Audio via a Joint Embedding Space of Mixed and Single Audio Samples

Document Thumbnail

Sample-based music creation has become a mainstream practice. One of the key tasks in the creative process is searching desired samples in large collections. However, most commercial packages describe the samples using metadata, which is limited to explain subtle nuances in timbre and style. Inspired by music producers who often find instrument samples with a reference song, we propose a query-by-example scheme that takes mixed audio as a query and retrieves single audio samples. Our method is based on deep metric learning where a neural network is trained to locate single audio and their mixtures closely in the embedding space. We show that our model successfully retrieves single audio samples given mixed audio query in various evaluation scenarios.

Authors:
Affiliation:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Start a discussion about this paper!


Low-Frequency Performance of a Woofer-Driven Flat-Panel Loudspeaker (Part 1: Numerical System Analysis and Small Signal Measurement)

Document Thumbnail

The low-frequency performance of loudspeakers is essential to the listener preference rating. To achieve the same low-frequency performance as conventional speakers, an optimized construction of a woofer-driven flat-panel loudspeaker was designed. The woofer radiates in a small air gap between the panel and the distance plate and excites the panel uniformly. At low frequencies, significant improvements compared to an exciter and a comparable performance to a conventional woofer system could be reached. This paper presents a numerical system analysis of the paneled woofer design, which provides a detailed understanding of the system’s behavior. Furthermore, the radiation mechanism is compared to that of an exciter. All simulation models are comprehensively validated with the corresponding experimental data.

Open Access

Open
Access

Authors:
Affiliation:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:


Download Now (2.8 MB)

This paper is Open Access which means you can download it for free.

Start a discussion about this paper!


Identification of Virtual Receiver Array Geometries that Minimize Audibility of Numerical Dispersion in Binaural Auralizations of Finite Difference Time Domain Simulations

Document Thumbnail

This paper presents a perceptual evaluation of numerical dispersion in free-field headphone-based head-tracked binaural auralizations of finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The simulated pressure, captured by virtual volumetric receiver arrays, is used to perform a spherical harmonics decomposition of the sound field and generate binaural signals. These binaural signals are compared perceptually to dispersion error-free binaural signals in a listening experiment designed using a duo-trio paradigm. The aim of the present work is to identify the size and density of the receiver array minimizing the audibility of numerical dispersion in the generated binaural signals. The spherical harmonics order was chosen to be 12 for the spatial decomposition. The overall reconstruction error, defined as the absolute value of the difference between the dispersion error-free and FDTD-simulated left-ear magnitude spectrum, was used as an objective metric to measure the spectral differences between the two signals. The listening experiment results show that this error does not correlate with the discrimination rates of the subjects. These results therefore suggest that this error does not suffice to describe the perceptual aspects introduced by numerical dispersion in the free-field dynamic binaural auralizations presented in the listening experiment. The results also show that increasing the receiver density for a fixed array size does not necessarily render numerical dispersion inaudible in the auralizations. Five out of 27 volumetric arrays led to FDTD-simulated binaural auralizations indistinguishable from the dispersion error-free binaural auralizations.

Open Access

Open
Access

Authors:
Affiliations:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:


Download Now (391 KB)

This paper is Open Access which means you can download it for free.

Start a discussion about this paper!


A Sonification Algorithm for Subjective Classification of Food Samples

Document Thumbnail

Spectroscopic food analysis has been much studied over many years and is still an ongoing topic of research. In this paper, we propose a spectroscopic diagnostic method to generate an audio output in order to discriminate between two classes of data, based on the features of spectral datasets. To do this, we first perform spectral pre-processing and extract appropriate features from the spectra, and then apply different selection criteria to narrow down the number of features selected. To optimise the process, we compare three selection criteria, as applied to two spectroscopy food datasets in order to evaluate the performance of sonification as a method for discriminating data. Lastly, the salient features are mapped to the parameters of a frequency modulation (FM) synthesizer, so as to generate audio samples. The results indicate that the model is able to provide relevant auditory information, and most importantly, allows users to discriminate consistently between two classes of spectral data. This approach using the sonification of spectroscopic data has been shown to be useful to a food analyst as a new method of investigating the purity of food.

Authors:
Affiliation:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Start a discussion about this paper!


Sonification of Spectroscopic analysis of food data using FM Synthesis

Document Thumbnail

Food safety is a global concern, and with the rise of automation, novel methods of categorising, sorting, and discriminating food types are being explored. These techniques require a reliable method for rapidly identifying food sources. In this paper, we propose a method of spectroscopic food analysis, whereby audio data is generated from spectra to allow users to discriminate between two classes of a given food type. To do this, we develop a system which first extracts features and applies dimensionality reduction, then maps them to the parameters of a synthesizer. To optimise the process, we compare Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM) synthesis, as applied to two real-life datasets to evaluate the performance of sonification as a method for discriminating data. The results indicate that the model is able to provide relevant auditory information, and most importantly, allows users to consistently discriminate between two classes of spectral data. This provides a complementary tool to supplement current food detection methods.

Authors:
Affiliation:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Start a discussion about this paper!


Overlapping Acoustic Event Detection via Perceptually Inspired the Holistic-based Representation Method

Document Thumbnail

A novel dictionary learning approach that utilizes Mel-scale frequency warping in detecting overlapped acoustic events is proposed. The study explored several dictionary learning schemes for improved performance of overlapping acoustic event detection. The structure of NMF for calculating gains of each event was utilized for including in overlapped signal for its low computational load. In this paper, we propose a method of frequency warping for better sound representation, and apply dictionary learning by a holistic-based representation, namely nonnegative K-SVD (NK-SVD) in order to resolve a basis sharing problem raised by part-based representations. By using Mel-scale in a dictionary learning, we show that the information carried by low frequency components more than high frequency components and dealt with a low complexity. Also, the proposed holistic-based representation method avoids the permutation problem between another acoustic events. Based on these benefits, we confirm that the proposed method of Mel-scale with NK-SVD delivered significantly better results than the conventional methods.

Open Access

Open
Access

Authors:
Affiliations:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:


Download Now (428 KB)

This paper is Open Access which means you can download it for free.

Start a discussion about this paper!


A flexible software tool for perceptual evaluation of audio material and VR environments

Document Thumbnail

Audio evaluation makes use of listening tests that allow the presentation of audio stimuli and gather data on their influence on human perception. Due to the rapid technological advancement and application-specific protocols, such work typically requires the experimenter to develop custom software that suits the experimental design and/or incorporates technological advancements, i.e., spatial audio. This article describes a publicly available listening test suite (BO-LTS) that allows standardised and sensory analysis evaluation protocols to be built with a high degree of flexibility, whilst supporting multichannel audio processing and the use of Virtual Reality (VR) environments

Authors:
Affiliations:
AES Convention: Paper Number: Permalink
Publication Date:
Subject:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Start a discussion about this paper!


                 Search Results (Displaying 1-10 of 62 matches)
AES - Audio Engineering Society