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AES E-Library Collections

Pro Audio Foundations by Rick Chinn

Created: October 1, 2014

I’m mostly a live sound and recording guy, and that is my primary area of interest in the E-Library. I come at audio from the technical/electronics direction rather than from being a musician, so my choices may be more theoretical and less practical. Still, I’m always up for a good recipe.

This collection lists papers that, at first glance, seemed of interest for further reading. I have read some of them previously; this gave me a foundation upon which to base my search on, which in the end was only a few names, and the rest fell out of the tree as I shook it.

Those names are:
Chris Strahm, of Northwest Sound and Maryland Sound Industries, who did some fundamental reasearch into multi-driver and multi-cabinet bass arrays. Chris also wrote the LEAP loudspeaker analysis program.
Milton Putnam, of United Recording Industries, and later UREI.
John Eargle, who was a prolific author on a number of topics, including recording and loudspeakers.
John Windt, who invented the Hummer device for finding pin-1 problems.
Neil Muncy, who identified the Pin-1 problem.
Jim Brown, who did research into microphone splitters, RFI into microphones, and other aspects of the Pin-1 problem.
Cal Perkins, inventor of the JBL 4550 and 4560 bass bins, who also contributed to the pin-1 problem research.
Michael Rettinger, an acoustician who had a hand in the acoustic design many of the early recording studios.

# 1

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Complete Analysis of Single and Multiple Loudspeaker Enclosures
Paper 2419; AES Convention 81; November 1986
Strahm, Chris N.

An improved model for the design and analysis of loudspeaker enclosures will be described which includes the mutual impedance terms between multiple ports, speakers, and enclosures. In addition, a powerful computer simulation program will be presented utilizing the developed acoustical model for the analysis of several sample enclosures and arrays. Actual measurements of the sample enclosures will be shown and compared to the simulations of the modeling program.

# 2

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Recording Studio and Control Room Facilities of Advance Design
JAES Volume 8 Issue 2 pp. 111-119; April 1960
Putnam, Milton T.

A decided departure from conventional control room design, involving new planning of layout for improved stereo monitoring, is described in detail. In addition, the control console mixing facilities incorporate many unique features which provide maximum flexibility for simultaneous stereophonic and monophonic recording.

# 3

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A Thirty-Five Year History and Evolution of the Recording Studio
Paper 1661; AES Convention 66; May 1980
Putnam, Milton T.

An historic review of the three and one half decades from the mid forties to 1980, provide a most interesting period of development of the recording studio, control room, and reverberation rooms and devices. Some basic fundamental techniques have weathered the test of time. The evolving changes in design concept occurred as a a result of the drastic shift in the music idiom, the major improvements in recording technology, and the need for cosmetic and esthetic alteration to accommodate the performers' wishes.

# 4

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50 Years of Sound Control Room Design
Paper 7140; AES Convention 122; May 2007
Voetmann, Jan

Sound control room design is an interesting corner of small room acoustics and represents most of the problems found here: Frequency balanced reverberation time, proper distribution of room modes, low frequency reproduction, sound source and receiver positioning, etc. The function of the control room is twofold, which is often overlooked: On one hand the control room together with the monitor loudspeakers should reproduce as faithful as possible the efforts of the sound engineer and the producer in creating a new recording. On the other hand the control room should mimic the perceived acoustics of an average living room when checking the final result of the recording. Simply because most musical productions are aimed at the listening environment of a living room.

# 5

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An Overview of Stereo Recording Techniques for Popular Music
JAES Volume 34 Issue 6 pp. 490-492, 494, 496, 498-500, 502, 503; June 1986
Eargle, John M.

Over the years, technical descriptions of stereo recording have centered on the essentials of sound-field pickup, with emphasis on maintaining left-right and fore-aft relationships on the reproduced sound stage. The principal emphasis has been on coincident and quasi-coincident microphone techniques, with special reference to the early work of Blumlein. Fundamentally, these descriptions have dealt with the recording of acoustically balanced ensembles performing in traditional venues, and this pretty much defines the goals of classical recording.

# 6

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Recording and Reproducing the Space of Audio, Part 1 Conventional Stereophony: Introduction
Paper 8-019; AES Conference: 8th International Conference: The Sound of Audio; May 1990
Eargle, John

"Conventional" stereophony is what the vast majority of audio consumers take for granted when they turn their audio systems on. Specifically, it is recorded (or created) over two loudspeakers and intended to be reproduced in a wide range of environments, from the most expensive audiophile system to the smallest two-speaker portable. The three papers presented in this session deal with the problems of picking up natural auditory perspectives in classical recording, the challenges of creating pop/rock music directly over loudspeakers, and the problems of monitoring these processes in a variety of working spaces.

# 7

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Equalizing the Monitoring Environment
JAES Volume 21 Issue 2 pp. 103-107; March 1973
Eargle, John

Today's -new music- is an art form which has its first existence over loudspeakers. In both the recording control and remix rooms higher degrees of electroacoustical accuracy are now demanded, and this has led to the general use of equalization as a means of minimizing the error between electrical and acoustical domains. Complex transfer functions of practical filter systems are examined and current engineering practice is described in detail.

# 8

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Acoustical Perspectives in Commercial Two-Channel Stereophonic Recording
Paper 8-020; AES Conference: 8th International Conference: The Sound of Audio; May 1990
Eargle, John; Streicher, Ron

As we enter the seventh decade of stereo recording and reproduction, we still rely on certain canonic techniques which were first described in the 1930's. These basic microphone arrays are essential in any recording application requiring the pickup of acoustical spatial details as they exist in the recording venue. In commercial recording practice, the basic techniques are often used in combination with each other and supplemented with additional microphones and signal processing. The rules are bent, as it were, to compensate for a variety of musical, technical, and commercial exigencies which cannot always be anticipated. This paper will describe the basic rules and their common exceptions.

# 9

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Historical Perspectives and Technology Overview of Loudspeakers for Sound Reinforcement
JAES Volume 52 Issue 4 pp. 412-433; April 2004
Eargle, John; Gander, M.

[feature] Horns and direct-radiating systems have provided the basis for sound reinforcement for more than a century. Both technologies have benefited from engineering and manufacturing improvements as well as demands for pushing the performance envelope. Trends of fashion have often intersected with engineering development, economics, and even marketplace opportunism. A survey tutorial of the significant developments in transduction, signal transmission, and system synthesis is presented here and discussed in historical perspective.

# 10

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A Look Back at the 1952 Parkin-Taylor Paper: Speech Reinforcement in St. Paul’s Cathedral
JAES Volume 54 Issue 1/2 pp. 67-74; February 2006
Parkin, P. H.; Taylor, J. H.; Klepper, David L.; Eargle, John

[Feature Article] The Parkin-Taylor paper and the work it represents heralded a revolution in speech-reinforcement system design. The accepted wisdom at the time of its publication (1952) was that low reverberation time was essential for high speech intelligibility in large spaces. This frequently involved the sacrifice of much of the beauty that long reverberation time provides for specific classes of music, including organ, choral, and congregational singing. The distributed-column loudspeaker system at London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral proved that a different approach was possible, and similar systems now exist in possibly a majority of Western European cathedrals and large churches, as well as in similar spaces in North America.

# 11

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Measurement and Estimation of Large Loudspeaker Array Performance
JAES Volume 38 Issue 4 pp. 204-220; April 1990
Gander, Mark R.; Eargle, John M.

While the individual elements used in large loudspeaker arrays may be well documented, the performance characteristics of the complete arrays themselves have not generally been measured in detail. Measurements on limited arrays, in conjunction with array theory and advanced modeling techniques, correlate well with observations made of large arrays and thus form the basis for accurate estimation of the performance of arbitrary arrays in large spaces.

# 12

A Graphic Method for Choosing and Aiming Loudspeakers for Reinforcement
JAES Volume 34 Issue 4 pp. 269-277; April 1986
Tappan, Peter W.

# 13

Benefits of Distance Correction for Multichannel Microphones
Paper 6682; AES Convention 120; May 2006
Goerne, Thomas

# 14

An Online Resource for the Subjective Comparison of Vocal Microphones
Engineering Brief 54; AES Convention 133; October 2012
Swanson, Bradford

# 15

Taking the Mystery Out of Microphone Behavior
Paper 4056; AES Convention 99; October 1995
Wahl, Juergen

# 16

Standard Stereo Recording Techniques in Non-Standard Situations
Paper 3313; AES Convention 92; March 1992
Swanson, Albert G.

# 17

Basic Stereo Microphone Perspectives-A Review
JAES Volume 33 Issue 7/8 pp. 548-556; August 1985
Streicher, Ron; Dooley, Wes

# 18

Recording of Acoustical Concerts Using a Soundfield Microphone
Paper 6996; AES Convention 122; May 2007
Schellstede, Markus; Faller, Christof

# 19

Advances in Line Array Technology for Live Sound
Paper 10; AES Conference: UK 18th Conference: Live Sound; April 2003
Webb, Bill; Baird, Jason

# 20

Recording Techniques as a Measure of the Quality of Concert Hall Acoustics
Paper 1504; AES Convention 63; May 1979
Potter, Constance A.; Hoge, W. J. J.

# 21

Pressure Zone Microphones-: A Practical Application of the Pressure Zone Recording Process-
Paper 1647; AES Convention 66; May 1980
Andrews, David M.

# 22

JAES Volume 33 Issue 7/8 pp. 514-547; August 1985
Sank, Jon R.

# 23

The Bidirectional Microphone: A Forgotten Patriarch
Paper 5646; AES Convention 113; October 2002
Streicher, Ronald; Dooley, Wes

# 24

Location Recording Practices: A Tutorial (with Emphasis Toward Broadcast Sessions)
Paper 2155; AES Convention 76; October 1984
Streicher, Ron

# 25

Measuring Spectral Directivity of an Electric Guitar Amplifier
Paper 8592; AES Convention 132; April 2012
Roginska, Agnieszka; Case, Alex U.; Madden, Andrew; Anderson, Jim

# 26

Old and New Techniques for Artificial Stereophonic Image Enhancement
Paper 4371; AES Convention 101; November 1996
Maher, Robert C.; Lindemann, Eric; Barish, Jeffrey

# 27

Enlarging the Sweet Spot for Stereophony by Time/Intensity Trading
Paper 3473; AES Convention 94; March 1993
Aarts, Ronald M.

# 28

A Bibliography of the Relevant Literature on the Subject of Microphones
JAES Volume 33 Issue 7/8 pp. 557-561; August 1985
Knoppow, Richard

# 29

M-S Stereo: A Powerful Technique for Working in Stereo
Paper 1792; AES Convention 69; May 1981
Dooley, Wesley L.; Streicher, Ronald D.

# 30

A Time-Align Technique for Loudspeaker System Design
Paper 1131; AES Convention 54; May 1976
Long, Edward M.

# 31

Analysis of Loudspeaker Line Arrays
JAES Volume 52 Issue 5 pp. 467-495; May 2004
Ureda, Mark S.

# 32

Practical Considerations for Field Deployment of Modular Line Array Systems
Paper 000056; AES Conference: 21st International Conference: Architectural Acoustics and Sound Reinforcement; June 2002
Scheirman, David W.

# 33

Microphones for Recording
JAES Volume 25 Issue 10/11 pp. 676-684; November 1977
Olson, Harry F.

# 34

A Better Approach to Passive Microphone Splitting
Paper 6338; AES Convention 118; May 2005
Brown, Jim; Whitlock, Bill

# 35

Tonal Effects of Close Microphone Placement
Paper 1782; AES Convention 69; May 1981
Bartlett, Bruce

# 36

Microphone Considerations in Feedback-Prone Environments
JAES Volume 24 Issue 6 pp. 434-445; August 1976
Schulein, Robert B.

# 37

Applications of Blumlein Shuffling to Stereo Microphone Techniques
Paper 3448; AES Convention 93; October 1992
Gerzon, Michael A.

# 38

Operator Adjustable Equalizers: An Overview
Paper 6-025; AES Conference: 6th International Conference: Sound Reinforcement; May 1988
Bohn, Dennis A.

# 39

The Musician and the Record
JAES Volume 25 Issue 10/11 pp. 880-884; November 1977
Torick, Emil L.

# 40

The Shape of Recording Studios to Come
JAES Volume 28 Issue 4 pp. 237-243; April 1980
Rettinger, Michael

# 41

Instrument Isolation for Multiple Track Music Recording
Paper 1119; AES Convention 54; May 1976
Rettinger, Michael

# 42

On the Acoustics of Multitrack Recording Studios
JAES Volume 19 Issue 8 pp. 651-655; September 1971
Rettinger, Michael

# 43

Note on Reverberation Chambers
JAES Volume 5 Issue 2 p. 108; April 1957
Rettinger, Michael

# 44

An Easily Implemented Procedure for Identifying Potential Electromagnetic Compatibility Problems in New Equipment and Existing Systems: The Hummer Test
JAES Volume 43 Issue 6 pp. 484-487; June 1995
Windt, John

# 45

Automated Test and Measurement of Common Impedance Coupling in Audio System Shield Terminations
JAES Volume 43 Issue 6 pp. 488-497; June 1995
Perkins, Cal

# 46

Noise Susceptibility in Analog and Digital Signal Processing Systems
JAES Volume 43 Issue 6 pp. 435-453; June 1995
Muncy, Neil

# 47

Grounding Systems and Their Implementation
Paper 3931; AES Convention 97; November 1994
Atkinson, Charles; Giddings, Philip

# 48

Fundamentals of Grounding, Shielding, and Interconnection
JAES Volume 43 Issue 6 pp. 498-516; June 1995
Fause, Kenneth R.

# 49

Common-Mode to Differential-Mode Conversion in Shielded Twisted-pair Cables (Shield-Current-Induced Noise)
Paper 5747; AES Convention 114; March 2003
Brown, Jim; Whitlock, Bill

# 50

Testing for Radio-Frequency Common Impedance Coupling (the "Pin 1 Problem") in Microphones and Other Audio Equipment
Paper 5897; AES Convention 115; October 2003
Brown, Jim

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