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The Quest for Directional Microphones at RCA

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The velocity microphone with a bidirectional cosine directional pattern and the unidirectional microphone with a cardioid directional pattern were developed five decades ago. Microphones with these directional characteristics have remained, up to the present time, the most significant directional microphones. A description is provided on how these and other directional microphones were developed using classical acoustical equations as a guide.

JAES Volume 28 Issue 11 pp. 776-786; November 1980
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AES - Audio Engineering Society