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-Tonearm Geometry and Frequency-Modulation Distortion- and Discussion

Investigated are the mechanisms by which a tonearm and cartridge system can generate frequency-modulation distortion during playback of phonograph records. Tonearm geometry is shown to influence the relative amount of distortion, and, in particular, tangential tracking designs are shown to be inherently less susceptible to horizontal mode distortion than conventional offset designs.

JAES Volume 30 Issue 9 pp. 574-579; September 1982
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AES - Audio Engineering Society