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CIRC-The Error-Correcting Code for the Compact Disc Digital Audio System

Recently N.V. Philips and the Sony Corporation agreed on the standardization of their Compact Disc (CD) digital audio systems. The error-correcting code CIRC (cross interleave Reed-Solomon code) for the system permits highly efficient detection and correction for burst as well as random errors. The code format defined for CIRC has built-in flexibility to accommodate three or four audio channels.: The requirements for error correction in a digital audio disk are explained, as are the ways in which they are met. The correction performance for random as well as burst errors is specified for several candidate decoding strategies. The application of CIRC and the well-matched EFM (eight-to-fourteen modulation) method enables the CD system to record stereo sound in 16-bit accuracy for more than 1hr practically free of errors.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society