Surface nearfield source (SNS) approach for sound reproduction which is categorized between headphones and loudspeakers was introduced in . The SNS can be embedded for example in the headrest as a personal sound system, providing also a natural audio-tactile augmentation to the listening experience. This paper focuses on the implementation of SNS speaker solution and how it relates to conventional flat panel speakers and structural vi-bration exciter solutions. Operation principle of panel type speakers is discussed, and low frequency vibration behavior of SNS solution integrated into a seat is illustrated using a lumped parameter model.
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