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State of the 'Equal-Loudness Curves': a literature review

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Fletcher-Munson equal loudness curves continue to dominate the conversation around perceived loudness. While the ISO 226 and ANSI S3.4 are the current model leaders there have been and continues to be literature comparing & critiquing the various methodology. Concerns revolve around sample size, content delivery method and its impact and content specification. Small and nearly homogeneous sample sizes cause standards to be potentially irrelevant to large sections of the population. Aspects of the delivery method shift perception. Frequency domain of source content impacts perception of loudness. There is need for continued research on application relevance of the equal-loudness-level contours especially considering diverse listener populations.

Express Paper 19; AES Convention 153; October 2022
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