In the audio industry, use of limiters is common practice to increase reproduction level while avoiding overload and ensuring system protection. We describe in this paper a novel energy-based limiter. Using a physical model, the total energy stored in a loudspeaker is controlled to keep the peak displacement within prescribed limits. This technique provides a smooth and precise control of the diaphragm maximum displacement, without change of the spectral balance. It will be presented first for a closed-box system, and then extended to a bass-reflex system, to limit the air velocity in the port and avoid onset of port noise.
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