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Describing the Audible Effects of Nonlinear Loudspeaker Distortion

In order to evaluate how and when listeners hear distortion in a nonlinear loudspeaker model, a three-part study was designed. A variety of audio files were processed through both a linear and a nonlinear loudspeaker model and the input signals were calibrated to produce a prescribed level of distortion in the nonlinear model. Listeners completed subjective experiments in which they heard both versions of the clips, selected the audible attributes they believed changed, and described the differences in their own words. In later tests, listeners marked in time they heard changes in the most commonly used descriptors. A full analysis of listener comments and time-based relationships is explored with theoretical explanations of the results obtained.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society