A series of controlled listening tests were conducted to determine the preferred low frequency response of in-ear (IE) headphones. Using a method of adjustment ten trained listeners adjusted the bass level and frequency of a 2nd order low shelving filter applied to a high quality IE headphone that was calibrated to the preferred target response of a circumaural headphone . The adjustments were done for three different music programs, and repeated with and without loudness normalization and control of leakage effects. The influence of program, individual taste, and loudness normalization and leakage effects on preferred low frequency response are presented and discussed.
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