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Principles of Headphone Design—A Tutorial Review

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Headphone design using lumped-parameter analysis and analogous circuits is described. Specifically a model of a dynamic driver in a circumaural enclosure is developed, but the approach may be applied to other drivers and enclosure types. Models are presented which illustrate key design constraints such as leak behavior, open / closed back approaches, cup attenuation, cushion compliance and headband tension. Limitations of the lumped parameter approach are discussed, following which an introduction to analyticalmodal and numerical modeling is presented.

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