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Applications of ENF Analysis Method in Forensic Authentication of Digital Audio and Video Recordings

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This paper reports on the electric network frequency (ENF) method as a means of assessing the integrity of digital audio/video evidence analysis. A brief description is given to different ENF types and phenomena that determine ENF variations, analysis methods, stability over different geographical locations on continental Europe, inter-laboratory validation tests, uncertainty of measurement, real case investigations, different compression algorithm effects on ENF values and possible problems to be encountered during forensic examinations. By applying the ENF Method in forensic audio/video analysis, one can determine whether and where a digital recording has been edited, establish whether it was made at the time claimed, and identify the time and date of the registering operation.

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