AES Show: Make the Right Connections Audio Engineering Society

AES San Francisco 2008
Education Event Details

Wednesday, October 1, 9:00 am — 4:00 pm

Live Sound Symposium: Surround Live VI—Acquiring the Surround Field

The Lodge Ballroom, Regency Center 1290 Sutter St. San Francisco, CA Tel. +1 415 673 5716

Building from the five previous, highly successful Surround Live symposia, Surround Live Six, will once again explore in detail, the world of Live Surround Audio.

Frederick Ampel, President of consultancy Technology Visions, in cooperation with the Audio Engineering Society, brings this years event back to San Francisco for the third time. The event will feature a wide range of professionals from both the televised Sports arena, Public Radio, and the digital processing and encoding sciences.

Surround Live Six Platinum Sponsors are: Neural Audio and Sennheiser/K&H. Surround Live Six Gold Sponsor is: Ti-Max/Outboard Electronics

8:15am - 9:00 am – Coffee, Registration, Continental Breakfast
9:00 am – Keynote #1 – Kurt Graffy
9:40 am – Keynote #2 – J. Johnston
10:15 am - 10:25 am – Coffee Break
10:30 am - 12:30 pm – Presenters 1, 2, & 3 plus Live Demonstrations and Demo Video Clips with Surround Audio
12:30 pm - 1:00 pm – Lunch (provided for Ticketed Participants)
1:00 pm - 3:00 pm – Presenters 4, 5, & 6 with Live Demonstrations and Clips
3:00 pm - 3:15 pm – Break
3:15 pm - 4:30 pm – Panel Discussion and Interactive Q&A
4:30 pm - 5:00 pm – Organ Concert (Pending availability of Organist) featuring the 1909 Austin Pipe Organ

Scheduled to appear are:
•Fred Aldous - FOX Sports Audio Consultant / Sr. Mixer
•Tom Sahara - Sr. Director of Remote Operations & IT Turner Sports
•Mike Pappas – KUVO Radio – Denver
•Kurt Graffy – ARUP Acoustics – San Francisco –Co-Keynote
•James D. (JJ) Johnston - Chief Scientist, Neural Audio, Kirkland, WA.
•Jim Hilson – Dolby Laboratories – San Francisco, CA.
•Other possible presenters include Speed Network, NFL Films, and NPR.

The day’s events will include formal presentations, special demonstration materials in full surround, and interactive discussions with presenters. Seating is limited, and previous events have sold out quickly. Register quickly to insure you will be able to attend.

Further details will be added as they become available

Thursday, October 2, 9:00 am — 10:15 am

SDA Meeting – 1

Jose Leonardo Pupo, Chair
Teri Grossheim, Vice Chair

This opening meeting of the Student Delegate Assembly will introduce new events and election proceedings, announce candidates for the coming year’s election for the North/Latin America Regions, announce the finalists in the recording competition categories, hand out the judges’ sheets to the nonfinalists, and announce any upcoming events of the convention. Students and student sections will be given the opportunity to introduce themselves and their past/upcoming activities. In addition, candidates for the SDA election will be invited to the stage to give a brief speech outlining their platform.

All students and educators are invited and encouraged to participate in this meeting. Also at this time there will be the opportunity to sign up for the mentoring sessions, a popular activity with limited space for participation.

Thursday, October 2, 9:00 am — 10:45 am

W1 - New Frontiers in Audio Forensics

Richard Sanders
Eddy B. Brixen
Rob Maher
Jeffrey Smith
Gregg Stutchman

In recent history Audio Forensics has been primarily the practice of audio enhancement, analog audio authenticity, and speaker identification. Due to the transition to “all things digital,” new areas of audio forensics are necessarily emerging. Some of these include digital media authenticity, audio for digital video, dealing with compressed audio files such as cell phones, portable recorders and messaging machines. Other new topics include the possible use of the variation of the electric network frequency and audio ballistics analysis. Dealing with the new technologies requires an additional knowledge base, some of which will be presented in this workshop.

Thursday, October 2, 9:00 am — 11:30 am

TT1 - San Francisco Conservatory of Music/Kirkegaard Associates

Founded in 1917, the SFCM is recognized as one of the world’s leading music schools. Its more than 1,200 students and faculty present over 1,500 public performances annually to 100,000+ Bay Area residents and visitors. The Conservatory’s $80 million teaching, performance, rehearsal and practice complex opened in the SF Civic Center in Sept. 2006. This tour will include a presentation by acoustical treatment experts Kirkegaard Associates.

Note: Maximum of 40 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Thursday, October 2, 9:00 am — 10:45 am

B1 - Listening Tests on Existing and New HDTV Surround Coding Systems

Gerhard Stoll, IRT
Florian Camerer, ORF
Kimio Hamasaki, NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories
Steve Lyman, Dolby Laboratories
Andrew Mason, BBC R&D
Bosse Ternström, SR

With the advent of HDTV services, the public is increasingly
being exposed to surround sound presentations using so-called home theater environments. However, the restricted bandwidth available into the home, whether by broadcast, or via broadband, means that there is an increasing interest in the performance of low bit rate surround sound audio coding systems for “emission” coding. The European Broadcasting Union Project Group D/MAE (Multichannel Audio Evaluations) conducted immense listening tests to asses the sound quality of multichannel audio codecs for broadcast applications in a range from 64 kbit/s to 1.5 Mbit/s. Several laboratories in Europe have contributed to this work.

This Broadcast Session will provide profound information about these tests and the results. Further information will be provided, how the professional industry, i.e. codec proponents and decoder manufacturers, is taking further steps to develop new products for multichannel sound in HDTV.

Thursday, October 2, 10:30 am — 1:00 pm

L1 - Sound Reinforcement of Acoustic Music

Rick Chinn
Jim Brown, Audio Systems Group
Mark Frink
Dan Mortensen, Dansound Inc.
Jim van Bergen

Amplifying acoustic music is a touchy subject, especially with musicians. It can be done, and it can be done well. Taste, subtlety, and restraint are the keywords. This live sound event brings four successful practitioners of the art  with a discussion of what can make you successful, and what won't. There is one thing for sure: it's not rock-n-roll.

Thursday, October 2, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

One on One Mentoring Session—Part 1

Students are invited to sign-up for an individual meeting with a distinguished mentor from the audio industry. The opportunity to sign up will be given at the end of the opening SDA meeting. Any remaining open spots will be posted in the student area. All students are encouraged to participate in this exciting and rewarding opportunity for individual discussion with industry mentors.

Thursday, October 2, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

L2 - The SOTA of Designing Loudspeakers for Live Sound

Tom Young, Electroacoustic Design Services
Tom Danley, Danley Sound Labs
Ales Dravinec, ADRaudio
Dave Gunness, Fulcrum Acoustic
Charlie Hughes, Excelsior Audio Design
Pete Soper, Meyer Sound

The loudspeakers we employ today for live sound (all levels, all types) are vastly improved over what we had on hand when R&R first exploded and pushed the limits of what was available back in the 1960s. Following a brief glimpse back in time (to provide a reality check on where we were when many of us started in this field) we will define where we are now. Along with advances made in enclosure design and fabrication, horn design, driver design, system engineering and fabrication, ergonomics and rigging, etc., we now are implementing various methods to improve the overall performance of the drivers and the loudspeaker systems we use, not to mention the advanced methods employed to optimize large systems, improve directivity, beam-steer, etc.

Much of this advancement, at least over the past 15 years or so, is directly related to our use of computers as a design tool for modeling, for complex measurements (both in the lab and in the field) as well as DSP for implementing various processing and monitoring functions. We will clarify what we can do with modern day loudspeakers/systems and where we still need to push further. We may even get our panelists to imagine where they believe we may be headed over the next 5–10 years.

Thursday, October 2, 2:30 pm — 6:00 pm

TT2 - Dolby Laboratories, San Francisco

Visit legendary Dolby Laboratories’ headquarters while you are in San Francisco. Dolby, known for its more than 40 years of audio innovation and leadership, will showcase its latest technologies (audio and video) for high-definition packaged disc media and digital cinema. Demonstrations will take place in Dolby’s state-of-the-art listening rooms, and in their world-class Presentation Studio.

Dolby Laboratories (NYSE:DLB) is the global leader in technologies that are essential elements in the best entertainment experiences. Founded in 1965 and best known for high-quality audio and surround sound, Dolby innovations enrich entertainment at the movies, at home, or on the go. Visit for more information.

Note: Maximum of 40 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Thursday, October 2, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

P3 - Audio for Broadcasting

Chair: Marshall Buck, Psychotechnology, Inc. - Los Angeles, CA, USA

P3-1 Graceful Degradation for Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)Ferenc Kraemer, Gerald Schuller, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany
A method is proposed that is able to maintain an adequate transmission quality of broadcasting programs over channels strongly impaired by fading. Although attempts of providing Graceful Degradation are manifold, the so called “brick wall effect” is inherent in most digital broadcasting systems. The main concept of the proposed method focuses on the open standard Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM). Our approach is to introduce an additional low bit rate parallel backup audio stream alongside the main radio stream. This backup stream bridges occurring dropouts in the main stream. Two versions are evaluated. One uses the standardized HVXC speech codec for encoding the parallel backup audio stream. The other version additionally uses a specially developed sinusoidal music codec.
Convention Paper 7517 (Purchase now)

P3-2 Factors Affecting Perception of Audio-Video Synchronization in TelevisionAndrew Mason, Richard Salmon, British Broadcasting Corporation - Tadworth, Surrey, UK
The increasing complexity of television broadcasting, has, over the decades, resulted in an increased variety of ways in which audio and video can be presented to the audience after experiencing different delays. This paper explores the factors that affect whether what is presented to the audience will appear to be correct. Experimental results of a study of the effect of video spatial resolution are included. Several international organizations are working to solve technical difficulties that result in incorrect synchronization of audio and video. A summary of their activities is included. The Audio Engineering Society Standards Committee has a project to standardize an objective measurement method, and a test signal and prototype measurement apparatus contributed to the project are described.
Convention Paper 7518 (Purchase now)

P3-3 Absolute Threshold of Coherence Position Perception between Auditory and Visual Sources for DialogsRoberto Munoz, U. Tecnológica de Chile INACAP - Santiago, Chile; Manuel Recuero, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - Madrid, Spain; Diego Duran, Manuel Gazzo, U. Tecnológica de Chile INACAP - Santiago, Chile
Under certain conditions, auditory and visual information are integrated into a single unified perception, even when they originate from different locations in space. The main motivation for this study was to find the absolute perception threshold of position coherence between sound and image, when moving the image across the screen and when panning the sound. In this manner it is possible to subjectively quantify, by means of the constant stimulus psychophysical method, the maximum difference of position between sound and image considered coherent by a viewer of audio-visual productions. This paper discusses the accuracy necessary to match the position of the sound and its image on the screen. The results of this study could be used to develop sound mixing criteria for audio-visual productions.
Convention Paper 7519 (Purchase now)

P3-4 Clandestine Wireless Development During WWII Jon Paul, Scientific Conversion, Inc., Crypto-Museum - CA, USA
We describe the many advances in spy radios during and after WWII, starting with the huge suitcase B2 suitcase transceiver, through several stages of miniaturization and eventually down to small modules a few inches in size just after the War. A top secret navigation set known as the S-Phone, provided navigation and full duplex voice communications at 380 MHz between clandestine agents, partisans, ships, and planes. The surprising sophistication and fast progress will be illustrated with many photographs and schematics from the collection of the Crypto-Museum. This multimedia presentation includes vintage era music and radio clips as well as original WWII propaganda graphics.
Convention Paper 7520 (Purchase now)

Thursday, October 2, 2:30 pm — 4:00 pm

W3 - Analyzing, Recommending, and Searching Audio Content—Commercial Applications of Music Information Retrieval

Jay LeBoeuf, Imagine Research
Markus Cremer, Gracenote
Matthias Gruhne, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology
Tristan Jehan, The Echo Nest
Keyvan Mohajer, Melodis Corporation

This workshop will focus on the cutting-edge applications of music information retrieval technology (MIR). MIR is a key technology behind music startups recently featured in Wired and Popular Science. Online music consumption is dramatically enhanced by automatic music recommendation, customized playlisting, song identification via cell phone, and rich metadata / digital fingerprinting technologies. Emerging startups offer intelligent music recommender systems, lookup of songs via humming the melody, and searching through large archives of audio. Recording and music software now offer powerful new features, leveraging MIR techniques. What’s out there and where is this all going? This workshop will inform AES members of the practical developments and exciting opportunities within MIR, particularly with the rich combination of commercial work in this area. Panelists will include industry thought-leaders: a blend of established commercial companies and emerging start-ups.

Thursday, October 2, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

P4 - Acoustic Modeling and Simulation

Chair: Scott Norcross, Communications Research Centre - Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

P4-1 Application of Multichannel Impulse Response Measurement to Automotive AudioMichael Strauß, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany, and Technical University of Delft, Delft, The Netherlands; Diemer de Vries, Technical University of Delft - Delft, The Netherlands
Audio reproduction in small enclosures holds a couple of differences in comparison to conventional room acoustics. Today’s car audio systems meet sophisticated expectations but still the automotive listening environment delivers critical acoustic properties. During the design of such an audio system it is helpful to gain insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of the acoustic field's properties. Because room acoustic modeling software reaches its limits the use of acoustic imaging methods can be seen as a promising approach. This paper describes the application of wave field analysis based on a multichannel impulse response measurement in an automotive use case. Besides a suitable preparation of the theoretical aspects, the analysis method is used to investigate the acoustic wave field inside a car cabin.
Convention Paper 7521 (Purchase now)

P4-2 Multichannel Low Frequency Room Simulation with Properly Modeled Source Terms—Multiple Equalization ComparisonRyan J. Matheson, University of Waterloo - Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
At low frequencies unwanted room resonances in regular-sized rectangular listening rooms cause problems. Various methods for reducing these resonances are available including some multichannel methods. Thus with introduction of setups like 5.1 surround into home theater systems there are now more options available to perform active resonance control using the existing loudspeaker array. We focus primarily on comparing, separately, each step of loudspeaker placement and its effects on the response in the room as well as the effect of adding additional symmetrically placed loudspeakers in the rear to cancel out any additional room resonances. The comparison is done by use of a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulator with focus on properly modeling a source in the simulation. A discussion about the ability of a standard 5.1 setup to utilize a multichannel equalization technique (without adding additional loudspeakers to the setup) and a modal equalization technique is later discussed.
Convention Paper 7522 (Purchase now)

P4-3 A Super-Wide-Range Microphone with Cardioid DirectivityKazuho Ono, Takehiro Sugimoto, Akio Ando, NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories - Tokyo, Japan; Tomohiro Nomura, Yutaka Chiba, Keishi Imanaga, Sanken Microphone Co. Ltd. - Japan
This paper describes a super-wide-range microphone with cardioid directivity, which covers the frequency range up to 100 kHz. The authors have successfully developed the omni-directional microphone capable of picking up sounds of up to 100 kHz with low noise. The proposed microphone uses an omni-directional capsule adopted in the omni-directional super-wide-range microphone and a bi-directional capsule that is newly designed to fit the characteristics of the omni-directional one. The output signals of both capsules are synthesized as the output signals to achieve cardioid directivity. The measurement results show that the proposed microphone achieves wide frequency range up to 100 kHz, as well as low noise characteristics and excellent cardioid directivity.
Convention Paper 7523 (Purchase now)

P4-4 Methods and Limitations of Line Source SimulationStefan Feistel, Ahnert Feistel Media Group - Berlin, Germany; Ambrose Thompson, Martin Audio - High Wycombe, Bucks, UK; Wolfgang Ahnert, Ahnert Feistel Media Group - Berlin, Germany
Although line array systems are in widespread use today, investigations of the requirements and methods for accurate modeling of line sources are scarce. In previous publications the concept of the Generic Loudspeaker Library (GLL) was introduced. We show that on the basis of directional elementary sources with complex directivity data finite line sources can be simulated in a simple, general, and precise manner. We derive measurement requirements and discuss the limitations of this model. Additionally, we present a second step of refinement, namely the use of different directivity data for cabinets of identical type based on their position in the array. All models are validated by measurements. We compare the approach presented with other proposed solutions.
Convention Paper 7524 (Purchase now)

Thursday, October 2, 3:00 pm — 5:00 pm

Evolution of Video Game Sound

John Griffin, Marketing Director, Games, Dolby Laboratories - USA
Simon Ashby, Product Director, Audiokinetic - Canada
Will Davis, Audio Lead, Electronic Arts/Pandemic Studios - USA
Charles Deenen, Sr. Audio Director, Electronic Arts Black Box - Canada
Tom Hays, Director, Technicolor Interactive Services - USA

From the discrete-logic build of Pong to the multi-core processors of modern consoles, video game audio has made giant strides in complexity to a heightened level of immersion and user interactivity. Since its modest beginnings of monophonic bleeps to the high-resolution multichannel orchestrations and point-of-view audio panning, audio professionals have creatively stretched the envelopes of audio production techniques, as well as the game engine capabilities.

The panel of distinguished video game audio professionals will discuss audio production challenges of landmark game platforms, techniques used to maximize the video game audio experience, the dynamics leading to the modern video game soundtracks, and where the video game audio experience is heading.

This event has been organized by Gene Radzik, AES Historical Committee Co-Chair.

Thursday, October 2, 4:00 pm — 5:00 pm

Listening Session

Students are encouraged to bring in their projects to a non competitive listening sessions for feedback and comments form Dave Greenspan, a panel, and audience. Students will be able to sign up at the first SDA meeting for time slots. Students who are finalists in the Recording competition are excluded from this event to allow others who were not finalists the opportunity for feedback.

Thursday, October 2, 4:30 pm — 6:30 pm

B4 - Mobile/Handheld Broadcasting: Developing a New Medium

Jim Kutzner, Public Broadcasting Service
Mark Aitken, Sinclair Broadcast Group
Sterling Davis, Cox Broadcasting
Brett Jenkins, Ion Media Networks
Dakx Turcotte, Neural Audio Corp.

The broadcasting industry, the broadcast and consumer equipment vendors, and the Advanced Television Systems Committee have been vigorously moving forward toward the development of a Mobile/Handheld DTV broadcast standard and its practical implementation. In order to bring this new service to the public players from various industry segments have come together in an unprecedented fashion. In this session key leaders in this activity will present what the emerging system includes, how far the industry has progressed, and what’s left to be done.

Thursday, October 2, 5:00 pm — 6:45 pm

M1 - Basic Acoustics: Understanding the Loudspeaker

John Vanderkooy, University of Waterloo - Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

This presentation is for AES members at an intermediate level and introduces many concepts in acoustics. The basic propagation of sound waves in air for both plane and spherical waves is developed and applied to the operation of a simple, sealed-box loudspeaker. Topics such as the acoustic impedance, compact source operation, and diffraction are included. Some live demonstrations with a simple loudspeaker; microphone and measuring computer are used to illustrate the basic radiation principle of a typical electrodynamic driver mounted in a sealed box.

Thursday, October 2, 5:00 pm — 6:45 pm

W4 - How to Avoid Critical Data Loss After Catastrophic System Failure

Chris Bross, DriveSavers, Inc.

Natural disaster, drive failure, human error, and cyber-related crime or corruption can threaten business continuity and a studio’s long-term survival if their data storage devices are compromised. Back up systems and disaster recovery plans can help the studio survive a system crash, but precautionary measures should also be taken to prevent catastrophic data loss should back-up measures fail or be incomplete.

A senior data recovery engineer will review the most common causes of drive failure, demonstrate the consequences of improper diagnosis and mishandling of the device, and provide appropriate action steps you can take for each type of data loss. Learn how to avoid further media damage or permanent data loss after the crash and optimize the chance for a complete data recovery.

Thursday, October 2, 5:00 pm — 6:45 pm

W5 - Engineering Mistakes We Have Made in Audio

Peter Eastty, Oxford Digital Limited - UK
Robert Bristow-Johnson, Audio Imagination
James D. (JJ) Johnston, Neural Audio Corp.
Mel Lambert, Media & Marketing
George Massenburg, Massenburg Design Works
Jim McTigue, Impulsive Audio

Six leading audio product developers will share the enlightening, thought-provoking, and (in retrospect) amusing lessons they have learned from actual mistakes they have made in the product development trenches.

Friday, October 3, 9:00 am — 11:00 am

One on One Mentoring Session—Part 2

Students are invited to sign-up for an individual meeting with a distinguished mentor from the audio industry. The opportunity to sign up will be given at the end of the opening SDA meeting. Any remaining open spots will be posted in the student area. All students are encouraged to participate in this exciting and rewarding opportunity for individual discussion with industry mentors.

Friday, October 3, 9:00 am — 11:00 am

M2 - Binaural Audio Technology—History, Current Practice, and Emerging Trends

Robert Schulein, Schaumburg, IL, USA

During the winter and spring of 1931-32, Bell Telephone Laboratories, in cooperation with Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra, undertook a series of tests of musical reproduction using the most advanced apparatus obtainable at that time. The objectives were to determine how closely an acoustic facsimile of an orchestra could be approached using both stereo loudspeakers and binaural reproduction. Detailed documents discovered within the Bell Telephone archives will serve as a basis for describing the results and problems revealed while creating the binaural demonstrations. Since these historic events, interest in binaural recording and reproduction has grown in areas such as sound field recording, acoustic research, sound field simulation, audio for electronic games, music listening, and artificial reality. Each of theses technologies has its own technical concerns involving transducers, environmental simulation, human perception, position sensing, and signal processing. This Master Class will cover the underlying principles germane to binaural perception, simulation, recording, and reproduction. It will include live demonstrations as well as recorded audio/visual examples.

Friday, October 3, 9:00 am — 12:00 pm

TT3 - Center for New Music and Audio Technology, UC Berkeley

The UC Berkeley Center for New Music and Audio Technologies (CNMAT) houses programs in research, pedagogy, and public performance that are focused on the creative interaction between music and technology. CNMAT's pedagogy program is highly integrated with the Department of Music's graduate program in composition, while the research program is linked with other disciplines and departments on campus such as architecture, mathematics, statistics, mechanical engineering, computer science, electrical engineering, psychology, cognitive science, physics, space sciences, the Center for New Media, and the Department of Theater, Dance, and Performance Studies. Presenters David Wessel (Co-Director, CNMAT) and Adrian Freed (Research Director, CNMAT) will give an overview of CNMAT research projects. For more information, visit

All visitors are required to sign a Non-Disclosure Agreement to enter the facility.

Note: Maximum of 47 participants per tour.

Price: $35 (members), $45 (nonmembers)

Friday, October 3, 9:00 am — 11:30 am

T4 - Perceptual Audio Evaluation

Søren Bech, Bang & Olufsen A/S - Struer, Denmark
Nick Zacharov, SenseLab - Delta, Denmark

The aim of this tutorial is to provide an overview of perceptual evaluation of audio through listening tests, based on good practices in the audio and affiliated industries. The tutorial is aimed at anyone interested in the evaluation of audio quality and will provide a highly condensed overview of all aspects of performing listening tests in a robust manner. Topics will include: (1) definition of a suitable research question and associated hypothesis, (2) definition of the question to be answered by the subject, (3) scaling of the subjective response, (4) control of experimental variables such as choice of signal, reproduction system, listening room, and selection of test subjects, (5) statistical planning of the experiments, and (6) statistical analysis of the subjective responses. The tutorial will include both theory and practical examples including discussion of the recommendations of relevant international standards (IEC, ITU, ISO). The presentation will be made available to attendees and an extended version will be available in the form of the text “Perceptual Audio Evaluation" authored by Søren Bech and Nick Zacharov.

Friday, October 3, 9:00 am — 11:30 am

P5 - Audio Equipment and Measurements

Chair: John Vanderkooy, University of Waterloo - Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

P5-1 Can One Perform Quasi-Anechoic Loudspeaker Measurements in Normal Rooms?John Vanderkooy, Stanley Lipshitz, University of Waterloo - Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
This paper is an analysis of two methods that attempt to achieve high resolution frequency responses at low frequencies from measurements made in normal rooms. Such data is contaminated by reflections before the low-frequency impulse response of the system has fully decayed. By modifying the responses to decay more rapidly, then windowing a reflection-free portion, and finally recovering the full response by deconvolution, these quasi-anechoic methods purport to thwart the usual reciprocal uncertainty relationship between measurement duration and frequency resolution. One method works by equalizing the response down to dc, the other by increasing the effective highpass corner frequency of the system. Each method is studied with simulations, and both appear to work to varying degrees, but we question whether they are measurements or effectively simply model extensions. In practice noise significantly degrades both procedures.
Convention Paper 7525 (Purchase now)

P5-2 Automatic Verification of Large Sound Reinforcement Systems Using Models of Loudspeaker Performance DataKlas Dalbjörn, Johan Berg, Lab.gruppen AB - Kungsbacka, Sweden
A method is described to automatically verify individual loudspeaker integrity and confirm the proper configuration of amplifier-loudspeaker connections in sound reinforcement systems. Using impedance-sensing technology in conjunction with software-based loudspeaker performance modeling, the procedure verifies that the load presented at each amplifier output corresponds to impedance characteristics as described in the DSP system’s currently loaded model. Accurate verification requires use of load impedance models created by iterative testing of numerous loudspeakers.
Convention Paper 7526 (Purchase now)

P5-3 Bend RadiusStephen Lampen, Carl Dole, Shulamite Wan, Belden - San Francisco, CA, USA
Designers, installers, and system integrators, have many rules and guidelines to follow. Most of these are intended to maximize cable and equipment performance. Many of these are “rules-of-thumb,” simple guidelines, easy to remember, and often just as easily broken. One of these is the “rule-of-thumb” regarding the bending of cable, especially coaxial cable. Many may have heard the term “No tighter than ten times the diameter.” While this can be helpful, in a general way, there is a deeper and more complex question. What happens when you do bend cable? What if you have no choice? Often a specific choice of rack or configuration of equipment requires that cables be bent tighter than that recommendation. And what happens if you “unbend” a cable that has been damaged? Does it stay damaged or can it be restored? This paper outlines a series of laboratory tests to determine exactly what happens when cable is bent and what the reaction is. Further, we will analyze the effect of bending on cable performance, specifically looking at impedance variations and return loss (signal reflection). For high-definition video signals (HD-SDI) return loss is the key to maximum cable length, bit errors, and open eye patterns. So analyzing the effecting of bending will allow us to determine signal quality based on the bending of an individual cable. But does this apply to digital audio cables? Does the relatively low frequencies of AES digital signals make a difference? Can these cables be bent with less effect on performance? These tests were repeated on both coaxial cable of different sizes and twisted pairs. Flexible coax cables were tested, as well as the standard solid-core installation versions. Paired cables consisted of AES digital audio shielded cables, both install and flexible versions, were also tested.
Convention Paper 7527 (Purchase now)

P5-4 Detecting Changes in Audio Signals by Digital DifferencingBill Waslo, Liberty Instruments Inc. - Liberty Township, OH, USA
A software application has been developed to provide an accessible method, based on signal subtraction, to determine whether or not an audio signal may have been perceptibly changed by passing through components, cables, or similar processes or treatments. The goals of the program, the capabilities required of it, its effectiveness, and the algorithms it uses are described. The program is made freely available to any interested users for use in such tests.
Convention Paper 7528 (Purchase now)

P5-5 Research on a Measuring Method of Headphones and Earphones Using HATSKiyofumi Inanaga, Takeshi Hara, Sony Corporation - Tokyo, Japan; Gunnar Rasmussen, G.R.A.S. Sound & Vibration A/S - Copenhagen, Denmark; Yasuhiro Riko, Riko Associates - Tokyo, Japan
Currently various types of couplers are used for measurement of headphones and earphones. The coupler was selected according to the device under test by the measurer. Accordingly it was difficult to compare the characteristics of headphones and earphones. A measuring method was proposed using HATS and a simulated program signal. However, the method had some problems in the shape of ear hole, and the measured results were not reproducible. We tried to improve the reproducibility of the measurement using several pinna models. As a result, we achieved a measuring platform using HATS, which gives good reproducibility of measured results for various types of headphones and earphones and then makes it possible to compare the measured results fairly.
Convention Paper 7529 (Purchase now)

Friday, October 3, 9:00 am — 1:00 pm

P6 - Loudspeaker Design

Chair: Alexander Voishvillo, JBL Professional - Northridge, CA, USA

P6-1 Loudspeaker Production VarianceSteven Hutt, Equity Sound Investments - Bloomington, IN, USA; Laurie Fincham, THX Ltd. - San Rafael, CA, USA
Numerous quality assurance philosophies have evolved over the last few decades designed to manage manufacturing quality. Managing quality control of production loudspeakers is particularly challenging. Variation of subcomponents and assembly processes across loudspeaker driver production batches may lead to excessive variation of sensitivity, bandwidth, frequency response, and distortion characteristics, etc. As loudspeaker drivers are integrated into production audio systems these variants result in broad performance permutation from system to system that affects all aspects of acoustic balance and spatial attributes. This paper will discuss traditional electro-dynamic loudspeaker production variation.
Convention Paper 7530 (Purchase now)

P6-2 Distributed Mechanical Parameters Describing Vibration and Sound Radiation of Loudspeaker Drive UnitsWolfgang Klippel, University of Technology Dresden - Dresden, Germany; Joachim Schlechter, KLIPPEL GmbH - Dresden, Germany
—Wolfgang Klippel, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Joachim Schlechter, Klippel GmbH, Dresden, Germany The mechanical vibration of loudspeaker drive units is described by a set of linear transfer functions and geometrical data that are measured at selected points on the surface of the radiator (cone, dome, diaphragm, piston, panel) by using a scanning technique. These distributed parameters supplement the lumped parameters (T/S, nonlinear, thermal), simplify the communication between cone, driver, and loudspeaker system design and open new ways for loudspeaker diagnostics. The distributed vibration can be summarized to a new quantity called accumulated acceleration level (AAL), which is comparable with the sound pressure level (SPL) if no acoustical cancellation occurs. This and other derived parameters are the basis for modal analysis and novel decomposition techniques that make the relationship between mechanical vibration and sound pressure output more transparent. Practical problems and indications for practical improvements are discussed for various example drivers. Finally, the usage of the distributed parameters within finite and boundary element analyses is addressed and conclusions for the loudspeaker design process are made.
Convention Paper 7531 (Purchase now)

P6-3 A New Methodology for the Acoustic Design of Compression Driver Phase-Plugs with Radial ChannelsMark Dodd, Celestion International Ltd. - Ipswich, UK,and GP Acousics (UK) Ltd., Maidstone, UK; Jack Oclee-Brown, GP Acousics (UK) Ltd. - Maidstone, UK, and University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
Recent work by the authors describes an improved methodology for the design of annular-channel, dome compression drivers. Although not so popular, radial channel phase plugs are used in some commercial designs. While there has been some limited investigation into the behavior of this kind of compression driver, the literature is much more extensive for annular types. In particular, the modern approach to compression driver design, based on a modal description of the compression cavity, as first pioneered by Smith, has no equivalent for radial designs. In this paper we first consider if a similar approach is relevant to radial-channel phase plug designs. The acoustical behavior of a radial-channel compression driver is analytically examined in order to derive a geometric condition that ensures minimal excitation of the compression cavity modes.
Convention Paper 7532 (Purchase now)

P6-4 Mechanical Properties of Ferrofluids in LoudspeakersGuy Lemarquand, Romain Ravaud, Valerie Lemarquand, Claude Depollier, Laboratoire d’Acoustique de l’Université du Maine - Le Mans, France
This paper describes the properties of ferrofluid seals in ironless electrodynamic loudspeakers. The motor consists of several outer stacked ring permanent magnets. The inner moving part is a piston. In addition, two ferrofluid seals are used that replace the classic suspension. Indeed, these seals fulfill several functions. First, they ensure the airtightness between the loudspeaker faces. Second, they act as bearings and center the moving part. Finally, the ferrofluid seals also exert a pull back force on the moving piston. Both radial and axial forces exerted on the piston are calculated thanks to analytical formulations. Furthermore, the shape of the seal is discussed as well as the optimal quantity of ferrofluid. The seal capacity is also calculated.
Convention Paper 7533 (Purchase now)

P6-5 An Ironless Low Frequency Subwoofer Functioning under its Resonance FrequencyBenoit Merit, Université du Maine - Le Mans, France, Orkidia Audio, Saint Jean de Luz, France; Guy Lemarquand, Université du Maine - Le Mans, France; Bernard Nemoff, Orkidia Audio - Saint Jean de Luz, France
A low frequency loudspeaker (10 Hz to 100 Hz) is described. Its structure is totally ironless in order to avoid nonlinear effects due to the presence of iron. The large diaphragm and the high force factor of the loudspeaker lead to its high efficiency. Efforts have been made for reducing the nonlinearities of the loudspeaker for a more accurate sound reproduction. In particular we have developed a motor totally made of permanent magnets, which create a uniform induction across the entire intended displacement of the coil. The motor linearity and the high force factor of this flat loudspeaker make it possible to function under its resonance frequency with great accuracy.
Convention Paper 7534 (Purchase now)

P6-6 Line Arrays with Controllable Directional Characteristics—Theory and PracticeLaurie Fincham, Peter Brown, THX Ltd. - San Rafael, CA, USA
A so-called arc line array is capable of providing directivity control. Applying simple amplitude shading can, in theory, provide good off-axis lobe suppression and constant directivity over a frequency range determined at low-frequencies by line length and at high-frequencies by driver spacing. Array transducer design presents additional challenges–the dual requirements of close spacing, for accurate high-frequency control, and a large effective radiating area, for good bass output, are incompatible with the use of multiple full-range drivers. A novel drive unit layout is proposed and theoretical and practical design criteria are presented for a two-way line with controllable directivity and virtual elimination of spatial aliasing. The PC-based array controller permits real-time changes in beam parameters for multiple overlaid beams.
Convention Paper 7535 (Purchase now)

P6-7 Loudspeaker Directivity Improvement Using Low Pass and All Pass FiltersCharles Hughes, Excelsior Audio Design & Services, LLC - Gastonia, NC, USA
The response of loudspeaker systems employing multiple drivers within the same pass band is often less than ideal. This is due to the physical separation of the drivers and their lack of proper acoustical coupling within the higher frequency region of their use. The resultant comb filtering is sometimes addressed by applying a low pass filter to one or more of the drivers within the pass band. This can cause asymmetries in the directivity response of the loudspeaker system. A method is presented to greatly minimize these asymmetries through the use of low pass and all pass filters. This method is also applicable as a means to extend the directivity control of a loudspeaker system to lower frequencies.
Convention Paper 7536 (Purchase now)

P6-8 On the Necessary Delay for the Design of Causal and Stable Recursive Inverse Filters for Loudspeaker EqualizationAvelino Marques, Diamantino Freitas, Polytechnic Institute of Porto - Porto, Portugal
The authors have developed and applied a novel approach to the equalization of non-minimum phase loudspeaker systems, based on the design of Infinite Impulse Response (recursive) inverse filters. In this paper the results and improvements attained on this novel IIR filter design method are presented. Special attention has been given to the delay of the equalized system. The boundaries to be posed on the search space of the delay for a causal and stable inverse filter, to be used in the nonlinear least squares minimization routine, are studied, identified, and related with the phase response of a test system and with the order of the inverse filter. Finally, these observations and relations are extended and applied to multi-way loudspeaker systems, demonstrating the connection of the lower and upper bounds of the delay with the loudspeaker’s crossover filters phase response and inverse filter order.
Convention Paper 7537 (Purchase now)

Friday, October 3, 9:00 am — 10:30 am

W6 - Audio Networking for the Pros

Umberto Zanghieri, ZP Engineering srl
Steve Gray, Peavey Digital Research
Greg Shay, Axia Audio
Jérémie Weber, Auvitran
Aidan Williams, Audinate

Several solutions are available on the market today for digital audio transfer over conventional data cabling, but only some of them allow usage of standard networking equipment. This workshop presents some commercially available solutions (Cobranet, Livewire, Ethersound, Dante), with specific focus on noncompressed, low-latency audio transmission for pro-audio and live applications using standard IEEE 802.3 network technology. The main challenges of digital audio transport will be outlined, including compatibility with common networking equipment, reliability, latency, and deployment. Typical scenarios will be proposed, with panelists explaining their own approaches and solutions.

Friday, October 3, 10:00 am — 12:00 pm

Education Fair

Institutions offering studies in audio (from short courses to graduate degrees) will be represented in a “table top” session. Information on each school’s respective programs will be made available through displays and academic guidance. There is no charge for schools/institutions to participate. Admission is free and open to all convention attendees.

Click here to reserve a table at this event.

Friday, October 3, 10:00 am — 12:30 pm

TT4 - Paul Stubblebine Mastering/The Tape Project, San Francisco

A world-class mastering studio with credits that include classic recordings for The Grateful Dead and Santana and such new artists as Ferron, California Zephyr, and Jennifer Berezan. Now deeply involved with DVD as well as traditional audio mastering, the studio recently moved to a larger, full service Mission Street complex. The Tape Project remasters recordings for analog tape distribution.

Note: Maximum of 20 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Friday, October 3, 11:00 am — 1:00 pm

L5 - Practical Advice for Wireless Systems Users

Karl Winkler, Lectrosonics
Freddy Chancellor
Henry Cohen, Production Radio Rentals - NYC, NY, USA
Michael Pettersen, Shure Incorporated - Niles, IL, USA

From houses of worship to wedding bands to community theaters, there are small- to medium-sized wireless microphone systems and IEMs in use by the millions. Unlike the Super Bowl or the Grammys, these smaller systems often do not have dedicated technicians, sophisticated frequency coordination, or in many cases even the proper basic attention to system setup. This live sound event will begin with a basic discussion of the elements of properly choosing components, designing systems, and setting them up in order to minimize the potential for interference while maximizing performance. Topics covered will include antenna placement, antenna cabling, spectrum scanning, frequency coordination, gain structure, system monitoring and simple testing/troubleshooting procedures. Briefly covered will also be planning for upcoming RF spectrum changes.

Friday, October 3, 11:30 am — 1:00 pm

Platinum Producers and Engineers

Paul Verna
Tony Berg
David Bowles
Jerry Harrison
Stephan Jenkins, Third Eye Blind
Chris Lord-Alge

Some of the industry’s top producers and engineers discuss the routes that led them to their careers in the studio. Prospective panelists include studio pros who arrived at their craft from the A&R side (Tony Berg), from the recording artist side (Stephan Jenkins from Third Eye Blind), from engineering (Chris Lord-Alge), and from formal training in classical music (David Bowles). The panel will be moderated by Paul Verna, veteran of Billboard and Mix magazines, and co-author of The Encyclopedia of Record Producers.

Friday, October 3, 11:30 am — 12:30 pm

T5 - A Postproduction Model for Video Game Audio: Sound Design, Mixing, and Studio Techniques

Rob Bridgett, Radical Entertainment - Vancouver, BC, Canada

In video game development, audio postproduction is still a concept that is frowned upon and frequently misunderstood. Audio content often still has the same cut-off deadlines as visual and design content, allowing no time to polish the audio or to reconsider the sound in context of the finished visuals. This tutorial talks about ways in which video game audio can learn from the models of postproduction sound in cinema, allotting a specific time at the end of a project for postproduction sound design, and perhaps more importantly, mixing and balancing all the elements of the soundtrack before the game is shipped. This tutorial will draw upon examples and experience of postproduction audio work we have done over the last two years such as mixing the Scarface game at Skywalker Sound and also more recent titles such as Prototype. The tutorial will investigate:

•Why cutting off sound at the same time as design and art doesn't work
•Planning and preparing for postproduction audio on a game
•Real-time sound replacement and mixing technology (proprietary and middleware solutions)
•Interactive mixing strategies (my game is 40+ hours long, how do I mix it all?)
•Building/equipping a studio for postproduction game audio.

Friday, October 3, 12:00 pm — 2:30 pm

TT5 - Singer V7 Studios/Universal Audio, San Francisco

Four-time Emmy Award-Winning Composer/Producer/Performer/Writer, & Director Scott Singer has been at the cutting edge of technology-based entertainment for three decades. Most recently Mr. Singer was the Technical Musical Director and Assistant Director for the High-Definition DVD live recordings of Boz Scaggs’ Jazz Album and Greatest Hits, and the HD simulcast of the San Francisco Opera Rigoletto.

Now in its 24th year of operation, Singer Productions and Singer Studios V7 continues to serve as a state of the art recording facility for both Mr. Singer’s projects as well as many other talented recording artists and performers. Scott has just completed a full studio remodel (Version 7) adding the world’s first Bentley Edition Recording Suite—featuring a custom British mixing desk from John Oram/Trident, the “GP40,” as well as classic high-end components from Neve, SSL, Universal Audio, RCA, and GML.

State of the Emulation

Dave Berners will be co-presenting an answering questions on plug-in
emulations. They will demo UA gear, with in-studio live vocals by singer
Kyah Doran.

Note: Maximum of 30 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Friday, October 3, 1:00 pm — 2:00 pm

Lunchtime Keynote: Dave Giovannoni of First Sounds

Before Edison—Recovering the World's First Audio Recordings

First Sounds, an informal collaborative of audio engineers and historians, recently corrected the historical record and made international headlines by playing back a phonautogram made in Paris in April 1860—a ghostly, ten-second evocation of a French folk song. This and other phonautograms establish a forgotten French typesetter as the first person to record reproducible airborne sound 17 years before Edison invented the phonograph. Primitive and nearly accidental, the world’s first audio recordings pose a unique set of technical challenges. David Giovannoni of First Sounds discusses their recovery and restoration and will premiere two newly restored recordings.

Friday, October 3, 2:00 pm — 4:45 pm

Recording Competition - Surround

The Student Recording Competition is a highlight at each convention. A distinguished panel of judges participates in critiquing finalists of each category in an interactive presentation and discussion. Student members can submit stereo and surround recordings in the categories classical, jazz, folk/world music, and pop/rock. Meritorious awards will be presented at the closing Student Delegate Assembly Meeting on Sunday.

Friday, October 3, 2:00 pm — 6:00 pm

TT6 - Tarpan Studios/Ursa Minor Arts & Media, San Rafael

World-renowned producer/artist Narada Michael Walden has owned this gem-like studio for over twenty years. During that time artists such as Aretha Franklin, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey, Steve Winwood, Kenny G, and Sting have recorded gold and platinum albums here. The tour will also include URSA Minor Arts & Media, an innovative web and multimedia production company.

Note: Maximum of 20 participants per tour.

Price: $35 (members), $45 (nonmembers)

Friday, October 3, 2:30 pm — 4:00 pm

Compressors—A Dynamic Perspective

Fab Dupont
Dave Derr
Wade Goeke
Dave Hill
Hutch Hutchison
George Massenburg
Rupert Neve

A device that, some might say, is being abused by those involved in the “loudness wars,” the dynamic range compressor can also be a very creative tool. But how exactly does it work? Six of the audio industry’s top designers and manufacturers lift the lid on one of the key components in any recording, broadcast or live sound signal chain. They will discuss the history, philosophy and evolution of this often misunderstood processor. Is one compressor design better than another? What design features work best for what application? The panel will also reveal the workings behind the mysteries of feedback and feed-forward designs, side-chains, and hard and soft knees, and explore the uses of multiband, parallel and serial compression.

Friday, October 3, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

Resume Review

John Strawn
Mark Dolson, Audience
Greg Duckett, Rane
Michael Poimboeuf, DigiDesign
Richard Wear, Interfacio

This session is aimed at job candidates in electrical engineering and computer science who want a private, no-cost, no-obligation confidential review of their resume. You can expect feedback such as: what is missing from the resume; what you should omit from the resume; how to strengthen your explanation of your talents and skills. Recent graduates, juniors, seniors, and graduate students who are now seeking, or will soon be seeking, a full-time employment position in the audio and music industries in hardware or software engineering will especially benefit from participating, but others with more industry experience are also invited. You will meet one-on-one with someone from a company in the audio and music industries with experience in hiring for R&D positions. Bring a paper copy of your resume and be prepared to take notes.

Friday, October 3, 2:30 pm — 4:15 pm

M3 - Sonic Methodology and Mythology

Keith O. Johnson - Pacifica, CA, USA

Do extravagant designs and superlative specifications satisfy sonic expectations? Can power cords, interconnects, marker dyes and other components in a controversial lineup improve staging, clarity, and other features? Intelligent measurements and neural feedback studies support these sonic issues as well as predict misdirected methodology from speculative thought. Sonic changes and perceptual feats to hear them are possible and we'll explore recorders, LPs, amplifiers, conversion, wire, circuits and loudspeakers to observe how they create artifacts and interact in systems. Hearing models help create and interpret tests intended to excite predictive behaviors of components. Time domain, tone cluster and fast sweep signals along with simple test devices reveal small complex artifacts. Background knowledge of halls, recording techniques, and cognitive perception becomes helpful to interpret results, which can reveal simple explanations to otherwise remarkable physics. Other topics include power amplifiers that can ruin a recording session, noise propagation from regulators, singing wire, coherent noise, eigensonics, and speakers prejudicial to key signatures. Waveform perception, tempo shifting, and learned object sounds will be demonstrated.

Friday, October 3, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

L6 - Source-Oriented Live Sound Reinforcement

Fred Ampel, Technology Visions
Kurt Graffy, Arup
Dave Haydon, Out Board Electronics
George Johnsen, Threshold Digital Research Labs
Vikram Kirby, Thinkwell Design & Production
Robin Whittaker, Out Board Electronics

Directional amplification, also referred to as Source-Oriented Reinforcement (SOR), describes a practical technique to deliver amplified sound to a large listening area with even coverage while providing directional information to reinforce visual cues and create a realistic and non-contradictory auditory panorama. Audio demonstrations of the fundamental psychoacoustic techniques employed in a SOR design will be presented and limits discussed.

The panel of presenters will outline the history of SOR from the pioneering work of Ahnert, Steinke, and Fels with their Delta Stereophony System in the mid 1970s (later licensed to AKG), to Out Board’s current day TiMax Audio Imaging Delay Matrix, including the very latest ground breaking technology employed to enable control of precedence by radar tracking the actors on the stage.
Descriptions of venues and productions that have employed SOR will be included.

Friday, October 3, 2:15 pm — 5:15 pm

TT7 - Sony Computer Entertainment America, Foster City

Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc. (SCEA) audio facility in Foster City, CA was constructed in 2006 to create exceptional audio support for the PlayStation® family of products. This 13-room facility, in partnership with it’s 15-room sister facility in San Diego, provides dialog, music, and sound design support for first party games on the PS3, PSP®, and PlayStation®2 game platforms. The Foster City facility has eleven 5.1 sound pods, one 7.1 mix room, and a recording studio. All rooms have hardware and software parity with the San Diego facility so project work can be shared and teams sizes can scale through out the development cycle of a game. All rooms are THX approved and have Mac and PC computers running in an external machine room. Monitors are custom designed by Pelonis Sound and Acoustics, Inc.

God of War®, Uncharted- Drakes Fortune, SOCOM: US Navy SEALs, and MLB 08 The Show are some of the titles that have benefited from music, sound design, and dialog work created in the Foster City and San Diego audio facilities.

SCEA policy requires all visitors to sign a Non-Disclosure Agreement to enter the facility.

Note: Maximum of 46 participants per tour.

Price: $35 (members), $45 (nonmembers)

Friday, October 3, 2:30 pm — 5:00 pm

TT8 - Singer V7 Studios/Universal Audio, San Francisco

Four-time Emmy Award-Winning Composer/Producer/Performer/Writer, and Director Scott Singer has been at the cutting edge of technology-based entertainment for three decades. Most recently Mr. Singer was the Technical Musical Director and Assistant Director for the High-Definition DVD live recordings of Boz Scaggs’ Jazz Album and Greatest Hits, and the HD simulcast of the San Francisco Opera Rigoletto.

Now in its 24th year of operation, Singer Productions and Singer Studios V7 continues to serve as a state of the art recording facility for both Mr. Singer’s projects as well as many other talented recording artists and performers. Scott has just completed a full studio remodel (Version 7) adding the world’s first Bentley Edition Recording Suite—featuring a custom British mixing desk from John Oram/Trident, the “GP40,” as well as classic high-end components from Neve, SSL, Universal Audio, RCA, and GML.

State of the Emulation

Dave Berners will be co-presenting an answering questions on plug-in
emulations. They will demo UA gear, with in-studio live vocals by singer
Kyah Doran.

Note: Maximum of 30 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Friday, October 3, 2:30 pm — 6:30 pm

P9 - Multichannel Sound Reproduction

Chair: Durand Begault, NASA Ames Research Center - Mountain View, CA, USA

P9-1 An Investigation of 2-D Multizone Surround Sound SystemsMark Poletti, Industrial Research Limited - Lower Hutt, Wellington, New Zealand
Surround sound systems can produce a desired sound field over an extended region of space by using higher order Ambisonics. One application of this capability is the production of multiple independent soundfields in separate zones. This paper investigates multi-zone surround systems for the case of two-dimensional reproduction. A least squares approach is used for deriving the loudspeaker weights for producing a desired single frequency wave field in one of N zones. It is shown that reproduction in the active zone is more difficult when an inactive zone is in-line with the virtual sound source and the active zone. Methods for controlling this problem are discussed.
Convention Paper 7551 (Purchase now)

P9-2 Two-Channel Matrix Surround Encoding for Flexible Interactive 3-D Audio ReproductionJean-Marc Jot, Creative Advanced Technology Center - Scotts Valley, CA, USA
The two-channel matrix surround format is widely used for connecting the audio output of a video gaming system to a home theater receiver for multichannel surround reproduction. This paper describes the principles of a computationally-efficient interactive audio spatialization engine for this application. Positional cues including 3-D elevation are encoded for each individual sound source by frequency-independent interchannel phase and amplitude differences, rather than HRTF cues. A matrix surround decoder based on frequency-domain Spatial Audio Scene Coding (SASC) is able to faithfully reproduce both ambient reverberation and positional cues over headphones or arbitrary multichannel loudspeaker reproduction formats, while preserving source separation despite the intermediate encoding over only two channels.
Convention Paper 7552 (Purchase now)

P9-3 Is My Decoder Ambisonic?Aaron Heller, SRI International - Menlo Park, CA, USA; Richard Lee, Pandit Littoral - Cooktown, Queensland, Australia; Eric Benjamin, Dolby Laboratories - San Francisco, CA, USA
In earlier papers, the present authors established the importance of various aspects of Ambisonic decoder design: a decoding matrix matched to the geometry of the loudspeaker array in use, phase-matched shelf filters, and distance compensation. These are needed for accurate reproduction of spatial localization cues, such as interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), and distance cues. Unfortunately, many listening tests of Ambisonic reproduction reported in the literature either omit the details of the decoding used or utilize suboptimal decoding. In this paper we review the acoustic and psychoacoustic criteria for Ambisonic reproduction; present a methodology and tools for "black box" testing to verify the performance of a candidate decoder; and present and discuss the results of this testing on some widely used decoders.
Convention Paper 7553 (Purchase now)

P9-4 Exploiting Human Spatial Resolution in Surround Sound Decoder DesignDavid Moore, Jonathan Wakefield, University of Huddersfield - West Yorkshire, UK
This paper presents a technique whereby the localization performance of surround sound decoders can be improved in directions in which human hearing is more sensitive to sound source location. Research into the Minimum Audible Angle is explored and incorporated into a fitness function based upon a psychoacoustic model. This fitness function is used to guide a heuristic search algorithm to design new Ambisonic decoders for a 5-speaker surround sound layout. The derived decoder is successful in matching the variation in localization performance of the human listener with better performance to the front and rear and reduced performance to the sides. The effectiveness of the standard ITU 5-speaker layout versus a non-standard layout is also considered in this context.
Convention Paper 7554 (Purchase now)

P9-5 Surround System Based on Three-Dimensional Sound Field ReconstructionFilippo M. Fazi, Philip A. Nelson, Jens E. Christensen, University of Southampton - Southampton, UK; Jeongil Seo, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) - Daejeon, Korea
The theoretical fundamentals and the simulated and experimental performance of an innovative surround sound system are presented. The proposed technology is based on the physical reconstruction of a three-dimensional target sound field over a region of the space using an array of loudspeakers surrounding the listening area. The computation of the loudspeaker gains includes the numerical or analytical solution of an integral equation of the first kind. The experimental setup and the measured reconstruction performance of a system prototype constituted by a three dimensional array of 40 loudspeakers are described and discussed.
Convention Paper 7555 (Purchase now)

P9-6 A Comparison of Wave Field Synthesis and Higher-Order Ambisonics with Respect to Physical Properties and Spatial SamplingSascha Spors, Jens Ahrens, Technische Universität Berlin - Berlin, Germany
Wave field synthesis (WFS) and higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) are two high-resolution spatial sound reproduction techniques aiming at overcoming some of the limitations of stereophonic reproduction techniques. In the past, the theoretical foundations of WFS and HOA have been formulated in a quite different fashion. Although some work has been published that aims at comparing both approaches their similarities and differences are not well documented. This paper formulates the theory of both approaches in a common framework, highlights the different assumptions made to derive the driving functions, and the resulting physical properties of the reproduced wave field. Special attention will be drawn to the spatial sampling of the secondary sources since both approaches differ significantly here.
Convention Paper 7556 (Purchase now)

P9-7 Reproduction of Virtual Sound Sources Moving at Supersonic Speeds in Wave Field SynthesisJens Ahrens, Sascha Spors, Technische Universität Berlin - Berlin, Germany
In conventional implementations of wave field synthesis, moving sources are reproduced as sequences of stationary positions. As reported in the literature, this process introduces various artifacts. It has been shown recently that these artifacts can be reduced when the physical properties of the wave field of moving virtual sources are explicitly considered. However, the findings were only applied to virtual sources moving at subsonic speeds. In this paper we extend the published approach to the reproduction of virtual sound sources moving at supersonics speeds. The properties of the actual reproduced sound field are investigated via numerical simulations.
Convention Paper 7557 (Purchase now)

P9-8 An Efficient Method to Generate Particle Sounds in Wave Field SynthesisMichael Beckinger, Sandra Brix, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology - Ilmenau, Germany
Rendering a couple of virtual sound sources for wave field synthesis (WFS) in real time is nowadays feasible using the calculation power of state-of-the-art personal computers. If immersive atmospheres containing thousands of sound particles like rain and applause should be rendered in real time for a large listening area with a high spatial accuracy, calculation complexity increases enormously. A new algorithm based on continuously generated impulse responses and following convolutions, which renders many sound particles in an efficient way will be presented in this paper. The algorithm was verified by first listening tests and its calculation complexity was evaluated as well.
Convention Paper 7558 (Purchase now)

Friday, October 3, 4:30 pm — 6:00 pm

T7 - Sound in the UI

Jeff Essex, Audiosyncrasy - Albany, CA, USA

Many computer and consumer electronics products use sound as part of their UI, both to communicate actions and to create a "personality" for their brand. This session will present numerous real-world examples of sounds created for music players, set-top boxes and operating systems. We'll follow projects from design to implementation with special attention to solving real-world problems that arise during development. We'll also discuss some philosophies of sound design, showing examples of how people respond to various audio cues and how those reactions can be used to convey information about the status of a device (navigation through menus, etc.).

Friday, October 3, 4:30 pm — 7:00 pm

TT9 - Singer V7 Studios/Universal Audio, San Francisco

Four-time Emmy Award-Winning Composer/Producer/Performer/Writer, & Director Scott Singer has been at the cutting edge of technology-based entertainment for three decades. Most recently Mr. Singer was the Technical Musical Director and Assistant Director for the High-Definition DVD live recordings of Boz Scaggs’ Jazz Album and Greatest Hits, and the HD simulcast of the San Francisco Opera Rigoletto.

Now in its 24th year of operation, Singer Productions and Singer Studios V7 continues to serve as a state of the art recording facility for both Mr. Singer’s projects as well as many other talented recording artists and performers. Scott has just completed a full studio remodel (Version 7) adding the world’s first Bentley Edition Recording Suite—featuring a custom British mixing desk from John Oram/Trident, the “GP40,” as well as classic high-end components from Neve, SSL, Universal Audio, RCA, and GML.

State of the Emulation

Dave Berners will be co-presenting an answering questions on plug-in
emulations. They will demo UA gear, with in-studio live vocals by singer
Kyah Doran.

Note: Maximum of 30 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Friday, October 3, 5:00 pm — 6:30 pm

W7 - Same Techniques, Different Technologies—Recurring Strategies for Producing Game, Web, and Mobile Audio

Peter Drescher
Steve Horowitz, NickOnline
George "The Fatman" Sanger, Legendary Game Audio Guru
Guy Whitmore, Microsoft Game Studio

When any new technology develops, the limitations of current systems are inevitably met. Bandwidth constraints then generate a class of techniques designed to maximize information transfer. Over time as bottlenecks expand, new kinds of applications become possible, making previous methods and file formats obsolete. By the time broadband access becomes available, we can observe a similar progression taking place in the next developing technology. The workshop discusses this trend as exhibited in the gaming, Internet, and mobile industries, with particular emphasis on audio file types and compression techniques. The presenter will compare and contrast obsolete tricks of the trade with current practices and invite industry veterans to discuss the trend from their points of view. Finally the panel makes predictions about the evolution of media.

Friday, October 3, 7:00 pm — 8:00 pm

Student Dinner

To welcome students to San Francisco, a dinner has been organized for the evening on Friday, October 3rd at 7pm. The dinner will take place at Chevy's, located in close proximity to the Moscone Center (201 3rd Street, San Francisco, CA 94103). At the dinner, there will be audio colleagues from all over the world. Of course, everybody is welcome to this event.

Cost is $16 per person. Tickets are sold at SDA-1. Dinner is buffet style and includes beef/chicken/veggie enchiladas, tacos, rice/beans, salad.

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 11:00 am

Career/Job Fair

The Career/Job Fair will feature several companies from the exhibit floor. All attendees of the convention, students and professionals alike, are welcome to come visit with representatives from the companies and find out more about job and internship opportunities in the audio industry. Bring your resume!

Click here to reserve a table at this event.

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 10:45 am

L7 - 10 Things to Get Right in PA and Sound Reinforceent

Peter Mapp

This Live Sound Event will discuss the 10 most important things to get right when designing/operating sound reinforcement and PA systems. However, as attendees at the event will learn, there are many more things to consider than just the 10 golden rules, and that the order of importance of these often changes depending upon the venue and type of system. We aim to provide a practical approach to sound systems design and operation and will be illustrated with many practical examples and case histories. Each panelist has many years of practical experience and between them can cover just about any aspect of sound reinforcement and PA systems design, operation, and technology. Come along to an event that aims to answer questions you never knew you had—but of course, to find out the 10 most important ones, you will have to attend the session!

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 10:45 am

B7 - DTV Audio Myth Busters

Jim Kutzner, PBS
Robert Bleidt, Fraunhofer USA Digital Media Technologies
Tim Carroll, Linear Acoustic, Inc.
Ken Hunold, Dolby Laboratories
David Wilson, Consumer Electronics Association

There is no limit to the confusion created by the audio options in DTV. What do the systems really do? What happens when the systems fail? How much control can be exercised at each step in the content food chain? There are thousands of opinions and hundreds of options, but what really works and how do you keep things under control? Bring your questions and join the discussion as four experts from different stages in the chain try to sort it out.

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 10:45 am

T9 - How I Does Filters: An Uneducated Person’s Way to Design Highly Regarded Digital Equalizers and Filters

Peter Eastty, Oxford Digital Limited - Oxfordshire, UK

Much has been written in many learned papers about the design of audio filters and equalizers, this is NOT another one of those. The presenter is a bear of little brain and has over the years had to reduce the subject of digital filtering into bite-sized lumps containing a number of simple recipes that have got him through most of his professional life. Complete practical implementations of high pass and low pass multi-order filters, bell (or presence) filters, and shelving filters including the infrequently seen higher order types. The tutorial is designed for the complete novice, it is light on mathematics and heavy on explanation and visualization—even so, the provided code works and can be put to practical use.

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 10:30 am

W9 - Low Frequency Acoustic Issues in Small Critical Listening Environments - Today's Audio Production Rooms

John Storyk
Renato Cipriano
Dave Kotch

Increasing real estate costs coupled with the reduced size of current audio control room equipment have dramatically impacted the current generation of recording studios. Small room environments (those under 300 s.f.) are now the norm for studio design. These rooms, particularly in view of current 5.1 audio requirements, create special challenges, associated with low frequency audio response in an ever expanding listening sweet spot. Real world conditions and result data will be presented for Ovesan Studios (New York), Roc the Mic Studios (New York), and Diante Do Trono (Brazil).

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 10:30 am

T10 - New Technologies for Up to 7.1 Channel Playback in Any Game Console Format

Geir Skaaden, Neural Audio Corp. - Kirkland, WA, USA

This tutorial investigates methods for increasing the number of audio channels in a gaming console beyond its current hardware limitations. The audio engine within a game is capable of creating a 360 8 environment, however, the console hardware uses only a few channels to represent this world. If home playback systems are commonly able to reproduce up to 7.1 channels, how do game developers increase the number of playback channels for a platform that is limited to 2 or 5 outputs? New encoding technologies make this possible. Descriptions of current methods will be made in addition to new console independent technologies that run within the game engine. Game content will be used to demonstrate the encode/decode process.

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 10:30 am

P13 - Spatial Perception

Chair: Richard Duda, San Jose State University - San Jose, CA, USA

P13-1 Individual Subjective Preferences for the Relationship between SPL and Different Cinema Shot SizesRoberto Munoz, U. Tecnológica de Chile INACAP - Santiago, Chile; Manuel Recuero, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - Madrid, Spain; Manuel Gazzo, Diego Duran, U. Tecnológica de Chile INACAP - Santiago, Chile
The main motivation of this study was to find Individual Subjective Preferences (ISP) for the relationship between SPL and different cinema shot sizes. By means of the psychophysical method of Adjustment (MA), the preferred SPL for four of the most frequently used shot sizes, i.e., long shot, medium shot, medium close-up, and close-up, was subjectively quantified.
Convention Paper 7578 (Purchase now)

P13-2 Improvements to a Spherical Binaural Capture Model for Objective Measurement of Spatial Impression with Consideration of Head MovementsChungeun Kim, Russell Mason, Tim Brookes, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK
This research aims, ultimately, to develop a system for the objective evaluation of spatial impression, incorporating the finding from a previous study that head movements are naturally made in its subjective evaluation. A spherical binaural capture model, comprising a head-sized sphere with multiple attached microphones, has been proposed. Research already conducted found significant differences in interaural time and level differences, and cross-correlation coefficient, between this spherical model and a head and torso simulator. It is attempted to lessen these differences by adding to the sphere a torso and simplified pinnae. Further analysis of the head movements made by listeners in a range of listening situations determines the range of head positions that needs to be taken into account. Analysis of these results inform the optimum positioning of the microphones around the sphere model.
Convention Paper 7579 (Purchase now)

P13-3 Predicting Perceived Off-Center Sound Degradation in Surround Loudspeaker Setups for Various Multichannel Microphone TechniquesNils Peters, Bruno Giordano, Sungyoung Kim, McGill University - Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Jonas Braasch, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute - Troy, NY, USA; Stephen McAdams, McGill University - Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Multiple listening tests were conducted to examine the influence of microphone techniques on the quality of sound reproduction. Generally, testing focuses on the central listening position (CLP), and neglects off-center listening positions. Exploratory tests focusing on the degradation in sound quality at off-center listening positions were presented at the 123rd AES Convention. Results showed that the recording technique does influence the degree of sound degradation at off-center positions. This paper focuses on the analysis of the binaural re-recording at the different listening positions in order to interpret the results of the previous listening tests. Multiple linear regression is used to create a predictive model which accounts for 85% of the variance in the behavioral data. The primary successful predictors were spectral and the secondary predictors were spatial in nature.
Convention Paper 7580 (Purchase now)

Saturday, October 4, 9:00 am — 12:00 pm

P14 - Listening Tests & Psychoacoustics

Chair: Poppy Crum, Johns Hopkins University - Baltimore, MD, USA

P14-1 Rapid Learning of Subjective Preference in EqualizationAndrew Sabin, Bryan Pardo, Northwestern University - Evanston, IL, USA
We describe and test an algorithm to rapidly learn a listener’s desired equalization curve. First, a sound is modified by a series of equalization curves. After each modification, the listener indicates how well the current sound exemplifies a target sound descriptor (e.g., “warm”). After rating, a weighting function is computed where the weight of each channel (frequency band) is proportional to the slope of the regression line between listener responses and within-channel gain. Listeners report that sounds generated using this function capture their intended meaning of the descriptor. Machine ratings generated by computing the similarity of a given curve to the weighting function are highly correlated to listener responses, and asymptotic performance is reached after only ~25 listener ratings.
Convention Paper 7581 (Purchase now)

P14-2 An Initial Validation of Individualized Crosstalk Cancellation Filters for Binaural Perceptual ExperimentsAlastair Moore, Anthony Tew, University of York - York, UK; Rozenn Nicol, France Télécom R&D - Lannion, France
Crosstalk cancellation provides a means of delivering binaural stimuli to a listener for psychoacoustic research that avoids many of the problems of using headphone in experiments. The aim of this study was to determine whether individual crosstalk cancellation filters can be used to present binaural stimuli, which are perceptually indistinguishable from a real sound source. The fast deconvolution with frequency dependent regularization method was used to design crosstalk cancellation filters. The reproduction loudspeakers were positioned at ±90-degrees azimuth and the synthesized location was 0-degrees azimuth. Eight listeners were tested with three types of stimuli. In twenty-two out of the twenty-four listener/stimulus combinations there were no perceptible differences between the real and virtual sources. The results suggest that this method of producing individualized crosstalk cancellation filters is suitable for binaural perceptual experiments.
Convention Paper 7582 (Purchase now)

P14-3 Reverberation Echo Density PsychoacousticsPatty Huang, Jonathan S. Abel, Hiroko Terasawa, Jonathan Berger, Stanford University - Stanford, CA, USA
A series of psychoacoustic experiments were carried out to explore the relationship between an objective measure of reverberation echo density, called the normalized echo density (NED), and subjective perception of the time-domain texture of reverberation. In one experiment, 25 subjects evaluated the dissimilarity of signals having static echo densities. The reported dissimilarities matched absolute NED differences with an R2 of 93%. In a 19-subject experiment, reverberation impulse responses having evolving echo densities were used. With an R2 of 90% the absolute log ratio of the late field onset times matched reported dissimilarities between impulse responses. In a third experiment, subjects reported breakpoints in the character of static echo patterns at NED values of 0.3 and 0.7.
Convention Paper 7583 (Purchase now)

P14-4 Optimal Modal Spacing and Density for Critical ListeningBruno Fazenda, Matthew Wankling, University of Huddersfield - Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, UK
This paper presents a study on the subjective effects of modal spacing and density. These are measures often used as indicators to define particular aspect ratios and source positions to avoid low frequency reproduction problems in rooms. These indicators imply a given modal spacing leading to a supposedly less problematic response for the listener. An investigation into this topic shows that subjects can identify an optimal spacing between two resonances associated with a reduction of the overall decay. Further work to define a subjective counterpart to the Schroeder Frequency has revealed that an increase in density may not always lead to an improvement, as interaction between mode-shapes results in serious degradation of the stimulus, which is detectable by listeners.
Convention Paper 7584 (Purchase now)

P14-5 The Illusion of Continuity Revisited on Filling Gaps in the Saxophone SoundPiotr Kleczkowski, AGH University of Science and Technology - Cracow, Poland
Some time-frequency gaps were cut from a recording of a motif played legato on the saxophone. Subsequently, the gaps were filled with various sonic material: noises and sounds of an accompanying band. The quality of the saxophone sound processed in this way was investigated by listening tests. In all of the tests, the saxophone seemed to continue through the gaps, an impairment in quality being observed as a change in the tone color or an attenuation of the sound level. There were two aims of this research. First, to investigate whether the continuity illusion contributed to this effect, and second, to discover what kind of sonic material filling the gaps would cause the least deterioration in sound quality.
Convention Paper 7585 (Purchase now)

P14-6 The Incongruency Advantage for Sounds in Natural ScenesBrian Gygi, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System - Martinez, CA, USA; Valeriy Shafiro, Rush University Medical Center - Chicago, IL, USA
This paper tests identification of environmental sounds (dogs barking or cars honking) in familiar auditory background scenes (street ambience, restaurants). Initial results with subjects trained on both the background scenes and the sounds to be identified showed a significant advantage of about 5% better identification accuracy for sounds that were incongruous with the background scene (e.g., a rooster crowing in a hospital). Studies with naïve listeners showed this effect is level-dependent: there is no advantage for incongruent sounds up to a Sound/Scene ratio (So/Sc) of –7.5 dB, after which there is again about 5% better identification. Modeling using spectral-temporal measures showed that saliency based on acoustic features cannot account for this difference.
Convention Paper 7586 (Purchase now)

Saturday, October 4, 10:00 am — 11:00 am

Listening Session

Students are encouraged to bring in their projects to a non-competitive listening session for feedback and comments from Dave Greenspan, a panel, and audience. Students will be able to sign up at the first SDA meeting for time slots. Students who are finalists in the Recording competition are excluded from this event to allow others who were not finalists the opportunity for feedback.

Saturday, October 4, 10:30 am — 1:00 pm

P16 - Spatial Audio Quality with Playback Demonstration on Sunday 9:00 am – 10:00 am

Chair: Francis Rumsey, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK

P16-1 QESTRAL (Part 1): Quality Evaluation of Spatial Transmission and Reproduction Using an Artificial ListenerFrancis Rumsey, Slawomir Zielinski, Philip Jackson, Martin Dewhirst, Robert Conetta, Sunish George, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK; Søren Beck, Bang & Olufsen a/s - Struer, Denmark; David Meares, DJM Consultancy - Sussex, UK
Most current perceptual models for audio quality have so far tended to concentrate on the audibility of distortions and noises that mainly affect the timbre of reproduced sound. The QESTRAL model, however, is specifically designed to take account of distortions in the spatial domain such as changes in source location, width, and envelopment. It is not aimed only at codec quality evaluation but at a wider range of spatial distortions that can arise in audio processing and reproduction systems. The model has been calibrated against a large database of listening tests designed to evaluate typical audio processes, comparing spatially degraded multichannel audio material against a reference. Using a range of relevant metrics and a sophisticated multivariate regression model, results are obtained that closely match those obtained in listening tests.
Convention Paper 7595 (Purchase now)

P16-2 QESTRAL (Part 2): Calibrating the QESTRAL Model Using Listening Test DataRobert Conetta, Francis Rumsey, Slawomir Zielinski, Phillip Jackson, Martin Dewhirst, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK; Søren Beck, Bang & Olufsen a/s - Struer, Denmark; David Meares, DJM Consultancy - Sussex, UK; Sunish George, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK
The QESTRAL model is a perceptual model that aims to predict changes to spatial quality of service between a reference system and an impaired version of the reference system. To achieve this, the model required calibration using perceptual data from human listeners. This paper describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a series of listening experiments designed to investigate the spatial quality impairment of 40 processes. Assessments were made using a multi-stimulus test paradigm with a label-free scale, where only the scale polarity is indicated. The tests were performed at two listening positions, using experienced listeners. Results from these calibration experiments are presented. A preliminary study on the process of selecting of stimuli is also discussed.
Convention Paper 7596 (Purchase now)

P16-3 QESTRAL (Part 3): System and Metrics for Spatial Quality PredictionPhilip J. B. Jackson, Martin Dewhirst, Rob Conetta, Slawomir Zielinski, Francis Rumsey, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK; David Meares, DJM Consultancy - Sussex, UK; Søren Bech, Bang & Olufsen A/S - Struer, Denmark; Sunish George, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK
The QESTRAL project aims to develop an artificial listener for comparing the perceived quality of a spatial audio reproduction against a reference reproduction. This paper presents implementation details for simulating the acoustics of the listening environment and the listener's auditory processing. Acoustical modeling is used to calculate binaural signals and simulated microphone signals at the listening position, from which a number of metrics corresponding to different perceived spatial aspects of the reproduced sound field are calculated. These metrics are designed to describe attributes associated with location, width, and envelopment attributes of a spatial sound scene. Each provides a measure of the perceived spatial quality of the impaired reproduction compared to the reference reproduction. As validation, individual metrics from listening test signals are shown to match closely subjective results obtained, and can be used to predict spatial quality for arbitrary signals.
Convention Paper 7597 (Purchase now)

P16-4 QESTRAL (Part 4): Test Signals, Combining Metrics and the Prediction of Overall Spatial QualityMartin Dewhirst, Robert Conetta, Francis Rumsey, Philip Jackson, Slawomir Zielinski, Sunish George, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK; Søren Beck, Bang & Olufsen A/S - Struer, Denmark; David Meares, DJM Consultancy - Sussex, UK
The QESTRAL project has developed an artificial listener that compares the perceived quality of a spatial audio reproduction to a reference reproduction. Test signals designed to identify distortions in both the foreground and background audio streams are created for both the reference and the impaired reproduction systems. Metrics are calculated from these test signals and are then combined using a regression model to give a measure of the overall perceived spatial quality of the impaired reproduction compared to the reference reproduction. The results of the model are shown to match closely the results obtained in listening tests. Consequently, the model can be used as an alternative to listening tests when evaluating the perceived spatial quality of a given reproduction system, thus saving time and expense.
Convention Paper 7598 (Purchase now)

P16-5 An Unintrusive Objective Model for Predicting the Sensation of Envelopment Arising from Surround Sound RecordingsSunish George, Slawomir Zielinski, Francis Rumsey, Robert Conetta, Martin Dewhirst, Philip Jackson, University of Surrey - Guildford, Surrey, UK; David Meares, DJM Consultancy - West Sussex, UK; Søren Bech, Bang & Olufsen A/S - Struer, Denmark
This paper describes the development of an unintrusive objective model, developed independently as a part of QESTRAL project, for predicting the sensation of envelopment arising from commercially available 5-channel surround sound recordings. The model was calibrated using subjective scores obtained from listening tests that used a grading scale defined by audible anchors. For predicting subjective scores, a number of features based on Inter-Aural Cross Correlation (IACC), Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT), and signal energy levels were extracted from recordings. The ridge regression technique was used to build the objective model, and a calibrated model was validated using a listening test scores database obtained from a different group of listeners, stimuli, and location. The initial results showed a high correlation between predicted and actual scores obtained from listening tests.
Convention Paper 7599 (Purchase now)

Saturday, October 4, 11:00 am — 1:00 pm

Education Forum Panel

Jason Corey, University of Michigan
Steven Bellamy, Humber College
S. Benjamin Kanters, Columbia College Chicago
John Krivit, New England Institute of Art

Education and the Evolution of the Professional Audio Industry

Educators will discuss the changing landscape of professional audio
technology and industry and the effects on course and curriculum
design. Panelists will discuss questions such as: What aspects of
audio education need to change to meet new demands in the
professional audio industry? How do we best prepare students for
professional audio work now and in the future? What aspects of audio
education need to remain the same? Audience questions and comments
will be encouraged to form an open discussion among all who attend.

Saturday, October 4, 11:00 am — 1:00 pm

B8 - Lip Sync Issue

Jonathan S. Abrams, Nutmeg Audio Post
Scott Anderson, Syntax-Brillian
Richard Fairbanks, Pharoah Editoial, Inc.
David Moulton, Sausalito Audio, LLC
Kent Terry, Dolby Laboratories

This is a complex problem, with several causes and fewer solutions. From production to broadcast, there are many points in the signal path and postproduction process where lip sync can either be properly corrected, or made even worse.

This session’s panel will discuss several key issues. Where do the latency issues exist in postproduction? Where do they exist in broadcast? Is there an acceptable window of latency? How can this latency be measured? What correction techniques exist? Does one type of video display exhibit less latency than another? What is being done in display design to address the latency? What proposed methods are on the horizon for addressing this issue in the future?

Join us as our panel covers the field from measurement, to post, to broadcast, and to the home.

Saturday, October 4, 11:00 am — 1:00 pm

L8 - Good Mic Technique—It's Not Just for the Studio: Microphone Selection and Usage for Live Sound

Dean Giavaras, Shure Incorporated - Niles, IL, USA
Richard Bataglia
Phil Garfinkel, Audix USA
Mark Gilbert
Dan Healy
Dave Rat, Rat Sound

While there are countless factors that contribute to a good sounding live event, selecting, placing, and using microphones well can make the difference between a pleasant event and a sonic nightmare. Every sound professional has their own approach to microphone technique. This live sound event will feature a panel of experts from microphone manufacturers and sound reinforcement providers who will discuss their tips, tricks, and experience for getting the job done right at the start of the signal path. We will address conventional and nonconventional techniques and share some interesting stories from the trenches hopefully giving everyone a few new ideas to try on their next event. Using good mic technique will ultimately give the live engineer more time and energy to concentrate on taming the rest of the signal chain and maybe even making it to catering!

Saturday, October 4, 11:00 am — 12:30 pm

TT12 - Pyramind, San Francisco

Pyramind is a leading-edge production and training facility located in the heart of San Francisco's creative development community. Pyramind provides sound development services and music production for the biggest names in screen and interactive entertainment. Its unique integrated approach to production and training provides education and expertise in a working studio environment. Pyramind works with clients and students alike to realize their professional and creative goals by providing production services and a proven audio training curriculum that reflect evolving industry needs.

Note: Maximum of 30 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Saturday, October 4, 11:30 am — 1:00 pm

Platinum Mastering

Bob Ludwig
Bernie Grundman, Bernie Grundman Mastering - Hollywood, CA, USA
Scott Hull, Scott Hull Mastering/Masterdisk - New York, NY, USA
Herb Powers Jr., Powers Mastering Studios - Orlando, FL, USA
Doug Sax, The Matering Lab - Ojai, CA, USA

In this session moderated by mastering legend Bob Ludwig, mastering all-stars talk about the craft and business of mastering and answer audience questions—including queries submitted in advance by students at top recording colleges. Panelists include Bernie Grundman of Bernie Grundman Mastering, Hollywood; Scott Hull of Scott Hull Mastering/Masterdisk, New York; Herb Powers Jr. of Powers Mastering Studios, Orlando, Fla.; and Doug Sax of The Mastering Lab, Ojai, Calif.

Saturday, October 4, 1:00 pm — 2:00 pm

Lunchtime Keynote:
Peter Gotcher
of Topspin Media

The Music Business Is Dead—Long Live the NEW Music Business!

Peter Gotcher will deliver a high-level view of the changing business models facing the music industry today. Gotcher will explain why it no longer works for artists to derive their income from record labels that provide a tiny share of high volume sales. He will also explore new revenue models that include multiple revenue streams for artists; the importance of getting rid of unproductive middlemen; and generating more revenue from fewer fans.

Saturday, October 4, 1:00 pm — 2:30 pm

Career Workshop

Gary Gottlieb
Keith Hatschek

This interactive workshop has been programmed based on student member input. Topics and questions were submitted by various student sections, polling students for the most in-demand topics. The final chosen topics are focused on education and career development within the audio industry and a panel selected to best address the chosen topics. An online discussion based on this talk will continue on the forums at, the official student website of the AES.

Saturday, October 4, 2:00 pm — 4:00 pm

TT14 - WAM Studios, San Francisco

Women's Audio Mission is a San Francisco-based, non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of women in music production and the recording arts. In a field where women are chronically under-represented (less than 5%), WAM seeks to "change the face of sound" by providing hands-on training, experience, career counseling, and job placement to women and girls in media technology for music, radio, film, television, and the internet. WAM believes that women's mastery of music technology and inclusion in the production process will expand the vision and voice of media and popular culture.

Note: Maximum of 20 participants per tour.

Price: $30 (members), $40 (nonmembers)

Saturday, October 4, 2:30 pm — 6:30 pm

Recording Competition - Stereo

The Student Recording Competition is a highlight at each convention. A distinguished panel of judges participates in critiquing finalists of each category in an interactive presentation and discussion. Student members can submit stereo and surround recordings in the categories classical, jazz, folk/world music, and pop/rock. Meritorious awards will be presented at the closing Student Delegate Assembly Meeting on Sunday.

Saturday, October 4, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

B9 - Listener Fatigue and Longevity

David Wilson, CEA
Sam Berkow, SIA Acoustics
Marvin Caesar, Aphex
James Johnston, Neural Audio Corp.
Ted Ruscitti, On-Air Research

This panel will discuss listener fatigue and its impact on listener retention. While listener fatigue is an issue of interest to broadcasters, it is also an issue of interest to telecommunications service providers, consumer electronics manufacturers, music producers, and others. Fatigued listeners to a broadcast program may tune out, while fatigued listeners to a cell phone conversation may switch to another carrier, and fatigued listeners to a portable media player may purchase another company’s product. The experts on this panel will discuss their research and experiences with listener fatigue and its impact on listener retention.

Saturday, October 4, 2:30 pm — 4:00 pm

P18 - Innovative Audio Applications

Chair: Cynthia Bruyns-Maxwell, University of California Berkeley - Berkeley, CA, USA

P18-1 An Audio Reproduction Grand Challenge: Design a System to Sonic Boom an Entire HouseVictor W. Sparrow, Steven L. Garrett, Pennsylvania State University - University Park, PA, USA
This paper describes an ongoing research study to design a simulation device that can accurately reproduce sonic booms over the outside surface of an entire house. Sonic booms and previous attempts to reproduce them will be reviewed. The authors will present some calculations that suggest that it will be very difficult to produce the required pressure amplitudes using conventional sound reinforcement electroacoustic technologies. However, an additional purpose is to make AES members aware of this research and to solicit feedback from attendees prior to a January 2009 down-selection activity for the design of an outdoor sonic boom simulation system.
Convention Paper 7607 (Purchase now)

P18-2 A Platform for Audiovisual Telepresence Using Model- and Data-Based Wave-Field SynthesisGregor Heinrich, Fraunhofer Institut für Graphische Datenverarbeitung (IGD) - Darmstadt, Germany, and vsonix GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany; Christoph Jung, Volker Hahn, Michael Leitner, Fraunhofer Institut für Graphische Datenverarbeitung (IGD) - Darmstadt, Germany
We present a platform for real-time transmission of immersive audiovisual impressions using model- and data-based audio wave-field analysis/synthesis and panoramic video capturing/projection. The audio sub-system focused on in this paper is based on circular cardioid microphone and weakly directional loudspeaker arrays. We report on both linear and circular setups that feed different wave-field synthesis systems. While we can report on perceptual results for the model-based wave-field synthesis prototypes with beamforming and supercardioid input, we present findings for the data-based approach derived using experimental simulations. This data-based wave-field analysis/synthesis (WFAS) approach uses a combination of cylindrical-harmonic decomposition of cardioid array signals and angular windowing to enforce causal propagation of the synthesized field. Specifically, our contributions include (1) the creation of a high-resolution reproduction environment that is omnidirectional in both the auditory and visual modality, as well as (2) a study of data-based WFAS for real-time holophonic reproduction with realistic microphone directivities.
Convention Paper 7608 (Purchase now)

P18-3 SMART-I2: “Spatial Multi-User Audio-Visual Real-Time Interactive Interface”Marc Rébillat, University of Paris Sud - Paris, France; Etienne Corteel, sonic emotion ag - Oberglatt, Switzerland; Brian F. Katz, University of Paris Sud - Paris, France
The SMART-I2 aims at creating a precise and coherent virtual environment by providing users both audio and visual accurate localization cues. It is known that, for audio rendering, Wave Field Synthesis, and for visual rendering, Tracked Stereoscopy, individually permit spatially high quality immersion within an extended space. The proposed system combines these two rendering approaches through the use of a large multi-actuator panel used as both a loudspeaker array and as a projection screen, considerably reducing audio-visual incoherencies. The system performance has been confirmed by an objective validation of the audio interface and a perceptual evaluation of the audio-visual rendering.
Convention Paper 7609 (Purchase now)

Saturday, October 4, 3:30 pm — 5:30 pm

Grammy SoundTable

Mike Clink, producer/engineer/entrepreneur (Guns N’ Roses, Sarah Kelly, Mötley Crüe)
Sylvia Massy, producer/engineer/entrepreneur (System of a Down, Johnny Cash, Econoline Crush)
Keith Olsen, producer/engineer/entrepreneur (Fleetwood Mac, Ozzy Osbourne, POGOLOGO Productions/MSR Acoustics)
Phil Ramone, producer/engineer/visionary (Elton John, Ray Charles, Shelby Lynne)
Carmen Rizzo, artist/producer/remixer (Seal, Paul Oakenfold, Coldplay)
John Vanderslice, artist/indie rock innovator/studio owner (MK Ultra, Mountain Goats, Spoon)

The 20th Annual GRAMMY Recording SoundTable is presented by the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences Inc. (NARAS) and hosted by AES.

YOU, Inc.! New Strategies for a New Economy

Today’s audio recording professional need only walk down the aisle of a Best Buy, turn on a TV, or listen to a cell phone ring to hear possibilities for new revenue streams and new applications to showcase their talents. From video games to live shows to ringbacks and 360 deals, money and opportunities are out there. It’s up to you to grab them.

For this special event the Producers & Engineers Wing has assembled an all-star cast of audio pros who’ll share their experiences and entrepreneurial expertise in creating opportunities in music and audio. You’ll laugh, you’ll cry, you’ll learn.

Saturday, October 4, 5:00 pm — 6:45 pm

B10 - Audio Transport

David Prentice, VCA
Kevin Campbell, APT Ltd.
Chris Crump, Comrex
Angela DePascale, Global Digital Datacom Services Inc.
Herb Squire, DSI RF
Mike Uhl, Telos

This will be a discussion of techniques and technologies used for transporting audio (i.e., STL, RPU, codecs, etc.). Transporting audio can be complex. This will be a discussion of various roads you can take.

Saturday, October 4, 5:00 pm — 6:45 pm

T14 - Electric Guitar-The Science Behind the Ritual

Alex U. Case, University of Massachusetts - Lowell, MA, USA

It is an unwritten law that recording engineers’ approach the electric guitar amplifier with a Shure SM57, in close against the grille cloth, a bit off-center of the driver, and angled a little. These recording decisions serve us well, but do they really matter? What changes when you back the microphone away from the amp, move it off center of the driver, and change the angle? Alex Case, Sound Recording Technology professor to graduates and undergraduates at UMass Lowell breaks it down, with measurements and discussion of the variables that lead to punch, crunch, and other desirables in electric guitar tone.

Sunday, October 5, 9:00 am — 10:30 am

Design Competition

The design competition is a competition for audio projects developed by students at any university or recording school challenging students with an opportunity to showcase their technical skills. This is not for recording projects or theoretical papers, but rather design concepts and prototypes. Designs will be judged by a panel of industry experts in design and manufacturing. Multiple prizes will be awarded.

Sunday, October 5, 9:00 am — 10:00 am

P16 Papers Demo

Playback session related to Paper Session 16 "Spatial Audio Quality" held Saturday, October 4 from 10:30 am to 1:00 pm.

Sunday, October 5, 9:00 am — 10:45 am

W10 - File Formats for Interactive Applications and Games

Chris Grigg, Beatnik, Inc.
Christof Faller, Illusonic LLC
John Lazzaro, University of California, Berkeley
Juergen Schmidt, Thomson

There are a number of different standards covering file formats that may be applicable to interactive or game applications. However, some of these older formats have not been widely adopted and newer formats may not yet be very well known. Other formats may be used in non-interactive applications but may be equally suitable to interactive applications. This tutorial reviews the requirements of an interactive file format. It presents an overview of currently available formats and discusses their suitability to certain interactive applications. The panel will discuss why past efforts at interactive audio standards have not made it to product and look to widely-adopted standards in related fields (graphics and networking) in order to borrow their successful traits for future standards. The workshop is presented by a number of experts who have been involved in the standardization or development of these formats. The formats
covered include Ambisonics B-Format, MPEG-4 object coding, MPEG-4 Structured Audio Orchestral Language, MPEG-4 Audio BIFS, and the upcoming iXMF standard.

Sunday, October 5, 9:00 am — 10:45 am

B11 - Internet Streaming—Audio Quality, Measurement, and Monitoring

David Bialik
Ray Archie, CBS Radio
Rusty Hodge, SomaFM
Benjamin Larson, Streambox, Inc.
Greg J. Ogonowski, Orban/CRL
Skip Pizzi, Contributing Editor, Radio World magazine
Geir Skaaden, Neural Audio Corp.

Internet Streaming has become a provider of audio and video content to the public. Now that the public has recognized the medium, the provider needs to deliver the content with a quality comparable to other mediums. Audio monitoring is becoming important, and a need to quantify the performance is important so that the streamer can deliver product of a standard quality.

Sunday, October 5, 9:00 am — 11:00 am

B12 - Art of Sound Effects—Performance to Production

David Shinn
Sue Zizza

Sound effects: footsteps, doors opening and closing, a bump in the night. These are the sounds that can take the flat one-dimensional world of audio, television, and film and turn them into realistic three-dimensional environments. From the early days of radio to the sophisticated modern day High Def Surround Sound of contemporary film; sound effects have been the final color on the director's palatte. Join Sound Effects and Foley Artists Sue Zizza and David Shinn of SueMedia Productions as they present a 90 minute session that explores the art of sound effects; creating and performing manual effects; recording sound effects with a variety of microphones; and using various primary sound effect elements for audio, video and film projects.

Sunday, October 5, 9:00 am — 11:00 am

P23 - Audio DSP

Chair: Jon Boley, LSB Audio

P23-1 Determination and Correction of Individual Channel Time Offsets for Signals Involved in an Audio MixtureEnrique Perez Gonzalez, Joshua Reiss, Queen Mary University of London - London, UK
A method for reducing comb-filtering effects due to delay time differences between audio signals in sound mixer has been implemented. The method uses a multichannel cross-adaptive effect topology to automatically determine the minimal delay and polarity contributions required to optimize the sound mixture. The system uses real time, time domain transfer function measurements to determine and correct the individual channel offset for every signal involved in the audio mixture. The method has applications in live and recorded audio mixing where recording a single sound source with more than one signal path is required, for example when recording a drum set with multiple microphones. Results are reported that determine the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Convention Paper 7631 (Purchase now)

P23-2 STFT-Domain Estimation of Subband CorrelationsMichael M. Goodwin, Creative Advanced Technology Center - Scotts Valley, CA, USA
Various frequency-domain and subband audio processing algorithms for upmix, format conversion, spatial coding, and other applications have been described in the recent literature. Many of these algorithms rely on measures of the subband autocorrelations and cross-correlations of the input audio channels. In this paper we consider several approaches for estimating subband correlations based on a short-time Fourier transform representation of the input signals.
Convention Paper 7632 (Purchase now)

P23-3 Separation of Singing Voice from Music Accompaniment with Unvoiced Sounds Reconstruction for Monaural RecordingsChao-Ling Hsu, Jyh-Shing Roger Jang, National Tsing Hua University - Hsinchu, Taiwan; Te-Lu Tsai, Institute for Information Industry - Taipei, Taiwan
Separating singing voice from music accompaniment is an appealing but challenging problem, especially in the monaural case. One existing approach is based on computational audio scene analysis, which uses pitch as the cue to resynthesize the singing voice. However, the unvoiced parts of the singing voice are totally ignored since they have no pitch at all. This paper proposes a method to detect unvoiced parts of an input signal and to resynthesize them without using pitch information. The experimental result shows that the unvoiced parts can be reconstructed successfully with 3.28 dB signal-to-noise ratio higher than that achieved by the currently state-of-the-art method in the literature.
Convention Paper 7633 (Purchase now)

P23-4 Low Latency Convolution In One Dimension Via Two Dimensional Convolutions: An Intuitive ApproachJeffrey Hurchalla, Garritan Corp. - Orcas, WA, USA
This paper presents a class of algorithms that can be used to efficiently perform the running convolution of a digital signal with a finite impulse response. The impulse is uniformly partitioned and transformed into the frequency domain, changing the one dimensional convolution into a two dimensional convolution that can be efficiently solved with nested short length acyclic convolution algorithms applied in the frequency domain. The latency of the running convolution is the time needed to acquire a block of data equal in size to the uniform partition length.
Convention Paper 7634 (Purchase now)

Sunday, October 5, 11:00 am — 1:00 pm

The Evolution of Electronic Instrument Interfaces: Past, Present, Future

Gino Robair, editor of Electronic Musician magazine
Roger Linn, Roger Linn Designs
Tom Oberheim, Founder, Oberheim Electronics
Dave Smith, Dave Smith Instruments

Developing musical instruments that take advantage of new technologies is exciting. However, coming up with something that is not only intuitive and musically useful but that will be accepted by musicians requires more than just a feature-rich box with sexy industrial design. This panel will discuss the issues involved in creating new musical instruments, with a focus on interface design, as well as explore ways to avoid the mistakes of the past when designing products for the future. These three panelists have brought a variety of innovative products to market (with varying degrees of success), which have made each of them household names in the MI world.

Sunday, October 5, 11:00 am — 1:00 pm

W11 - Upcoming MPEG Standard for Efficient Parametric Coding and Rendering of Audio Objects

Oliver Hellmuth, Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS
Jonas Engdegård
Christof Faller
Jürgen Herre
Leon van de Kerkhof

Through exploiting the human perception of spatial sound, “Spatial Audio Coding” technology enabled new ways of low bit-rate audio coding for multichannel signals. Following the finalization of the MPEG Surround specification, ISO/MPEG launched a follow-up standardization activity for bit-rate-efficient and backward compatible coding of several sound objects. On the receiving side, such a Spatial Audio Object Coding (SAOC) system renders the objects interactively into a sound scene on a reproduction setup of choice. The workshop reviews the ideas, principles, and prominent applications behind Spatial Audio Object Coding and reports on the status of the ongoing ISO/MPEG Audio standardization activities in this field. The benefits of the new approach will be highlighted and illustrated by means of real-time demonstrations.

Sunday, October 5, 11:30 am — 1:00 pm

Platinum Road Warriors

Clive Young
Eddie Mapp
Paul “Pappy” Middleton
Howard Page

An all-star panel of leading front-of-house engineers will explore subject matter ranging from gear to gossip, in what promises to be an insightful, amusing, and enlightening 90 minute session. Engineers for superstar artists will discuss war stories, technical innovations, and heroic efforts to maintain the eternal “show must go on” code of the road. Ample time will be provided for an audience Q&A session.

Sunday, October 5, 11:30 am — 1:00 pm

SDA Meeting - 2

The closing meeting of the SDA will host the election of a new vice chair. Votes will be cast by a designated representative from each recognized AES student section or academic institution in the North/Latin America Regions present at the meeting. Judges’ comments and awards will be presented for the Recording and Design Competitions. Plans for future student activities at local, regional, and international levels will be summarized and discussed among those present at the meeting.

Sunday, October 5, 2:30 pm — 5:00 pm

L12 - Innovations in Live Sound—A Historical Perspective

Ted Leamy, Pro Media | UltraSound
Graham Blyth, Soundcraft
Ken Lopez, University of Southern California
John Meyer, Meyer Sound

New techniques and products are often driven by changes in need and available technology. Today’s sound professional has a myriad of products to choose from. That wasn’t always the case. What drove the creation of today’s products? What will drive the products of tomorrow? Sometimes a look back is the best way to get a peek ahead. A panel of industry pioneers and trailblazers will take a look back at past live sound innovations with an emphasis on the needs and constraints that drove their development and adoption.

Sunday, October 5, 2:30 pm — 4:00 pm

W12 - Revolt of the Mastering Engineers

Paul Stubblebine
Greg Calbi
Bernie Grundman
Michael Romanowski

Mastering engineer Bernie Grundman has started a label, Straight Ahead Records, to record music he and his partners like in a straight-ahead recording fashion, and is putting it out on vinyl. Greg Calbi and the other mastering engineers at Sterling have started a vinyl label. A couple of mastering engineers, Paul Stubblebine and Michael Romanowski have started a re-issue label putting out music they love on 15 IPS half track reel to reel (

What’s behind this trend? Why are mastering engineers giving up their non-existent free time to start labels based on obsolete technologies? What does this say about the current state of recorded music?

Sunday, October 5, 2:30 pm — 4:00 pm

W13 - Wanna Feel My LFE? And 51 Other Questions to Scare Your Grandma

Florian Camerer, ORF – Austrian TV
Bosse Ternstrom, Swedish Radio

Florian Camerer, ORF, and Bosse Ternstrom, Swedish Radio, are two veterans of surround sound production and mixing. In this workshop a multitude of diverse examples will be played, with controversial styles, wildly differing mixing techniques, earth shaking low frequency effects, and dynamic range that lives up to its name! Be prepared for a rollercoaster ride through multichannel audio wonderland!

Sunday, October 5, 2:30 pm — 4:00 pm

W14 - Navigating the Technology Mine Field in Game Audio

Marc Schaefgen, Midway Games
Rich Carle, Midway Games
Clark Crawford, Midway Games
Kristoffer Larson, Midway Games

In the early days of game audio systems, tools and assets were all developed and produced in-house. The growth of the games industry has resulted in larger audio teams with separate groups dedicated to technology or content creation. The breadth of game genres and number of “specialisms” required to create the technology and content for a game have mandated that developers look out of house for some of their game audio needs.

In this workshop the panel discusses the changing needs of the game-audio industry and the models that a studio typically uses to produce the audio for a game. The panel consists of a number of audio directors from different first-party studios owned by Midway games. They will examine the current middleware market and explain how various tools are used by their studios in the audio production chain. The panel also explains how out-of-house musicians or sound designers are outsourced as part of the production process.

Sunday, October 5, 2:30 pm — 4:30 pm

P25 - Forensic Analysis

Chair: Eddy Bogh Brixen, EBB-Consult - Smørum, Denmark

P25-1 Magnetic Field Mapping of Analog Audio and Video Tapes (Invited Paper)David P. Pappas, Fabio C. S. da Silva, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Forensic analysis of magnetic tape evidence can be critical in many cases. In particular, it has been shown that imaging the magnetic patterns on tapes can give important information related to authenticity and identifying the type of recorder(s) used. We present here an imaging system that allows examiners to view the magnetic patterns while they are playing, copying, or listening to cassette audio and VHS video tapes. With the added benefits of high resolution and polarity sensitivity, this system significantly improves on the accuracy and speed of the examination. Finally, the images, which constitute a true magnetic field map of the tape, can be saved to a computer file. We demonstrate that analog audio data can be recovered directly from these maps with bandwidths only limited by the sampling rate of the electronics. For helical video signals on VHS tapes, we can see the signature of the magnetic recording. Higher sampling rates and transverse spatial resolution would be needed to reconstruct video data from the images. However, for cases where VHS video tape has been cut into small pieces, we have built a custom fixture that allows the tape to be held up to it. It can display the low frequency synchronization track, allowing examiners to quickly identify the side of the tape that the data is on and the orientation. The system is based on magnetoresistive imaging heads capable of scanning 256 channels simultaneously along linear ranges of either 4 mm or 13 mm. High speed electronics read the channels and transfer the data to a computer that builds and displays the images.

P25-2 Magnetic Development: Magneto-Optical Indicator Film Imaging vs. FerrofluidsJonathan C. Broyles, Image and Sound Forensics - Parker, CO, USA
Techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of ferrofluids and magneto-optical indicator film imaging methods of magnetic development are discussed. Presentation and discussion of test results with supporting test images and figures. A number of MOIF imaging examples are presented for discussion. General overview on how magneto-optical magnetic development works. Magnetic development examples processed on magneto-optical imaging system developed and built by the author.
Convention Paper 7642 (Purchase now)

P25-3 Extraction of Electric Network Frequency Signals from Recordings Made in a Controlled Magnetic FieldRichard Sanders, University of Colorado Denver - Denver, CO, USA; Pete Popolo, National Center for Voice & Speech - Denver, CO, USA
An Electric Network Frequency (ENF) signal is the 60 Hz component of an AC power signal that varies over time due to fluctuations in power production and consumption, across the entire grid of a power distribution network. When present in audio recordings, these signals (or their harmonics) can be used to authenticate a recording, time stamp the original, or determine if a recording was copied or edited. This paper will present the results of an experiment to determine if ENF signals in a controlled magnetic field can be detected and extracted from audio recordings made with battery operated audio recording devices.
Convention Paper 7643 (Purchase now)

P25-4 Forensic Voice Identification Utilizing Digitally Extracted Speech CharacteristicsJeff M. Smith, Richard Sanders, University of Colorado Denver - Denver, CO, USA
By combining modern capabilities in the digital domain with more traditional methods of aural comparison and spectrographic inspection, the acquisition of identity from recorded evidence can be executed with greater confidence. To aid the Audio Forensic Examiner’s efforts in this, an effective approach to manual voice identification is presented here. To this end, this paper relates the research into and application of unique vocal characteristics utilized by the SIDNI (Speaker Identification by Numerical Imprint) automated system of voice identification to manual forensic investigation. Some characteristics include: fundamental speaking frequency, rate of vowels, proportional relationships in spectral distribution, amplitude of speech, and perturbation measurements.
Convention Paper 7644 (Purchase now)

Sunday, October 5, 4:30 pm — 6:00 pm

W15 - Interactive MIDI-Based Technologies for Game Audio

Steve Martz, THX Ltd.
Chris Grigg, IASIG
Larry the O
Tom Savell, Creative Labs

The MIDI Manufacturers Ass’n (MMA) has developed three new standards for MIDI-based technologies with applications in game audio. The 3-D MIDI Controllers specification allows for real-time positioning and movement of music and sound sources in 3-D space, under MIDI control. The Interactive XMF specification marks the first nonproprietary file format for portable, cue-oriented interactive audio and MIDI content with integrated scripting. Finally, the MMA is working toward a completely new, and drastically simplified, 32-bit version of the MIDI message protocol for use on modern transports and software APIs, called the HD Protocol for MIDI Devices.

Many of the sessions not mentioned here will be of interest to students, depending on their specialization and progress. Especially all Tutorials, Master Classes, the Live Sound Seminars, and many of the Workshops have much to offer.