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AES Amsterdam 2008
Paper Session P27

P27 - Psychoacoustics, Perception, and Listening Tests - 3

Tuesday, May 20, 13:00 — 16:00
Chair: John Beerends, TNO Information and Communication Technology - Delft, The Netherlands

P27-1 Perceptual Evaluation of Numerically Simulated Head-Related Transfer FunctionsJulia Turku, Miikka Vilermo, Eira Seppälä, Monika Pölönen, Ole Kirkeby, Asta Kärkkäinen, Leo Kärkkäinen, Nokia Research Center - Helsinki, Finland
Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) produced by numerical simulations were compared to measured HRTFs through two listening tests. The purpose was to determine whether the numerically simulated HRTFs, which do not contain any of the artifacts associated with acoustic measurements, capture the detail necessary for reproducing convincing 3-D sound. The results suggest that when virtual sound sources are presented to listeners binaurally over headphones, the measured and modeled HRTF sets perform equally well in terms of perception of direction. Regarding preference of binauralization methods, the simulated HRTFs performed slightly better.
Convention Paper 7489 (Purchase now)

P27-2 Evaluating Perception of Salient Frequencies: Do Mixing Engineers Hear the Same Thing?Joerg Bitzer, University of Applied Science Oldenburg - Oldenburg, Germany; Jay LeBoeuf, Imagine Research, Inc. - San Francisco, CA, USA; Uwe Simmer, University of Applied Science Oldenburg - Oldenburg, Germany
In this paper we analyze the agreement of mixing engineers when finding salient frequencies in recorded audio tracks. Twenty-two mixing engineers were asked to use an equalizer with a high-Q and high-gain setting. Using this tool to sweep through the files’ frequencies, they analyzed sixteen audio tracks and reported the most perceptually salient frequencies. The results show that the agreement depends on the analysis bandwidth. Most mixing engineers agree with a wide frequency range. However, only a few engineers agree if the matching bandwidth is below or equal to one-third octave. In this paper we try to explain these results and give a detailed analysis.
Convention Paper 7462 (Purchase now)

P27-3 Influence of Visual Appearance on Loudspeaker Sound Quality EvaluationAlex Karandreas, Flemming Christensen, Aalborg University - Aalborg, Denmark
Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present paper evaluates overall impression in relation to audition and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order to quantify the bias that the loudspeaker appearance has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, audio stimuli of varied degradation are coupled with actual loudspeakers of different visual appearance.
Convention Paper 7491 (Purchase now)

P27-4 Comparison of Loudspeaker/Room Equalization Preferences for Multichannel, Stereo, and Mono Reproductions: Are Listeners More Discriminating in Mono?Sean Olive, Sean Hess, Allan Devantier, Harman International Industries, Inc. - Northridge, CA, USA
Automated digital loudspeaker/room correction products are more popular than ever despite the general lack of perceptual studies on their performance measured over a range of different playback conditions. This paper describes the first of several perceptual experiments designed to explore how different loudspeaker-room correction methods affect the sound quality of reproduction given a range of different listening rooms, loudspeakers, setups, and programs that might influence their perceived performance. A panel of trained listeners gave comparative preference ratings for three different loudspeaker equalizations evaluated in a semi-reflective room using three multichannel music recordings reproduced in surround, stereo, and mono playback modes. The three equalizations were based on either anechoic or in-room measurements with different perceptual weighting given to the direct versus the direct + reflected sounds radiated by the loudspeaker. The different equalizations were identical below 400 Hz to focus on perceptual effects occurring above the room’s transition frequency. The results are summarized as follows: all three equalizations were equally preferred over the unequalized system; the difference in preference increased monotonically as the number of playback channels was reduced from 5 (surround) to 1 (mono).
Convention Paper 7492 (Purchase now)

P27-5 Caution and Warning Alarm Design and Evaluation for NASA CEV Auditory DisplaysDurand Begault, NASA Ames Research Center - Moffett Field, CA, USA; Martine Godfroy, San Jose State University Foundation, NASA Ames Research Center - Moffett Field, CA, USA; Aniko Sandor, LZ Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center - Houston, TX, USA; Kritina Holden, Lockheed Martin Corporation, NASA Johnson Space Center - Houston, TX, USA
The design of caution-warning signals for NASA’s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other future spacecraft will be based on both best practices based on current research and evaluation of current alarms. A design approach is presented based upon cross-disciplinary examination of psychoacoustic research, human factors experience, aerospace practices, and acoustical engineering requirements. A listening test with thirteen participants was performed involving ranking and grading of current and newly developed caution-warning stimuli under three conditions: (1) alarm levels adjusted for compliance with ISO 7731, "Danger signals for work places—Auditory Danger Signals;" (2) alarm levels adjusted to an overall 15 dBA s/n ratio; and (3) simulated codec low-pass filtering. The resulting analyses include determination of sounds that were judged as inappropriate, independent of condition.
Convention Paper 7493 (Purchase now)

P27-6 Loudness Calculation for Individual Acoustical Objects within Complex Temporally Variable SoundsCornelius Bradter, Klaus Hobohm, Hochschule für Film und Fernsehen - Potsdam, Germany
Models used for loudness calculation normally treat their input signal as an integral whole. For sounds consisting of two or more distinguishable acoustical objects this contradicts the listening experience. Auditory perception analyzes and identifies acoustical objects and may treat them differently. By expanding principles used in excitation synthesis-based loudness models, we developed a procedure to calculate loudness of a time-varying acoustical object while a second object is simultaneously present. When signals of both objects are available individually and in combination, the procedure reflects effects of one object on the other as well as changes of loudness perception due to signal features of one or both objects.
Convention Paper 7494 (Purchase now)

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