AES New York 2007
Poster Session P11
Saturday, October 6, 2:00 pm — 3:30 pm
P11-1 Impact of Equalizing Ear Canal Transfer Function on Out-of-Head Sound Localization—Masataka Yoshida, Nagaoka University of Technology - Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan; Akihiro Kudo, Tomakomai National College of Technology - Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan; Haruhide Hokari, Shoji Shimada, Nagaoka University of Technology - Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan
Several papers have pointed out that the frequency characteristics of the ear canal transfer functions (ECTFs) depend on headphone type, ear placement position of headphones, and subject's ear canal shape/volume. However, the effect of these factors on creating out-of-head sound localization has not been sufficiently clarified. The purpose of this paper is to clarify this effect. Sound localization tests using several types of headphones are performed in three conditions: listener's (individualized) ECTFs, HATS's (non-individualized) ECTFs, and omitted ECTFs. The results show that employing the individualized ECTFs generally yields accurate localization, while omitting the use of ECTFs increase the horizontal average localization error in accordance with the type of headphone employed.
Convention Paper 7229 (Purchase now)
P11-2 A Method for Estimating the Direction of Sound Image Localization for Designing a Virtual Sound Image Localization Control System—Yoshiki Ohta, Kensaku Obata, Pioneer Corporation - Tsurugashima-city, Saitama, Japan
We developed a method of estimating the direction of sound image localization. Our method is based on the sound pressure distribution in the vicinity of a listener. In the experiment, band noises that only differ in phase were produced from two loudspeakers. We determined what relation existed between the subjective direction of the sound image localization and the objective sound pressure distribution in the vicinity of the listener. We found that an azimuth of localization can be expressed as a linear combination of sound pressure levels in the vicinity of the listener. Our method can be used to estimate azimuths with a high degree of accuracy and to associate phase differences with azimuths. Therefore, it can be used to design a system for controlling virtual sound image localization.
Convention Paper 7230 (Purchase now)
P11-3 A Preliminary Experimental Study on Perception of Movement of a Focused Sound Using a 16-Channel Loudspeaker Array—Daiki Sato, Musashi Institute of Technology - Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Teruki Oto, Kenwood Corporation - Tokyo, Japan; Kaoru Ashihara, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - Tsukuba, Japan; Ryuzo Horiguchi, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - Tsukuba, Japan, and Musashi Institute of Technology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Shogo Kiryu, Musashi Institute of Technology - Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan
We have been developing a sound field effecter by using a loudspeaker array. In order to design a practical system, psychoacoustic experiments for recognition of sound fields are required. In this paper perception of a sound focus is investigated using a 16-channel loudspeaker array. Listening experiments were conducted in an anechoic room and a listening room. The movement of 25 cm in horizontal direction and the movement of 100 cm in the direction from the loudspeaker array toward the subject could be recognized in both rooms, but that in the vertical could not be perceived in both rooms.
Convention Paper 7231 (Purchase now)
P11-4 Perceptual Categories of Artificial Reverberation for Headphone Reproduction of Music—Atsushi Marui, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music - Tokyo, Japan
In the studies of artificial reverberations, the focus is usually on recreating the natural reverberation that can be heard in the real environment. However, little attention was paid to the evaluation of useful ranges in application of the artificial reverberation in music production. The focus of this paper is to discuss and evaluate three artificial reverberation algorithms intended for headphone reproduction of music, and to propose iso-usefulness contour on those algorithms for several different types of musical sounds.
Convention Paper 7232 (Purchase now)
P11-5 Correspondence Relationship between Physical Factors and Psychological Impressions of Microphone Arrays for Orchestra Recording—Toru Kamekawa, Atsushi Marui, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music - Tokyo, Japan; Hideo Irimajiri, Mainichi Broadcasting Corporation - Kita-ku, Osaka, Japan
Microphone technique for the surround sound recording of an orchestra is discussed. Eight types of well known microphone arrays recorded in a concert hall were compared in subjective listening tests on seven attributes such as spaciousness, powerfulness, and localization using a method inspired by MUSHRA (MUltiple Stimuli with Hidden Reference and Anchor). The result of the experiment shows similarity and dissimilarity between each microphone array. It is estimated that directivity of a microphone and distance between each microphone are related to the character of the microphone array, and these similarities are changed by music character. The relations of the physical factors of each array were also compared, such as SC (Spectral Centroid), LFC (Lateral Fraction Coefficient), and IACC (Inter Aural Cross-correlation Coefficient) from the impulse response of each array or recordings by a dummy head. The correlation of these physical factors and the attribute scores show that the contribution of these physical factors depends on music.
Convention Paper 7233 (Purchase now)
P11-6 Assessment of the Quality of Digital Audio Reproduction Devices by Panels of Listeners of Different Professional Profiles—Piotr Kleczkowski, AGH University of Science and Technology - Krakow, Poland; Marek Pluta, Academy of Music in Cracow - Krakow, Poland; Szymon Piotrowski, AGH University of Science and Technology - Krakow, Poland
A series of experiments has been conducted, where different panels of listeners assessed the quality of some selected digital audio reproduction devices. The quality of the devices covered a very wide range from budget MP3 players through to a professional high resolution digital-to-analog conversion system. The main goal of this research was to investigate whether panels of listeners of different professional profiles are able to give different evaluations of the sound quality. Some interesting results have been obtained.
Convention Paper 7234 (Purchase now)
Last Updated: 20070927, mei