S2 HEARING DAMAGE IN MUSICAL PRACTICE
Chair: Hans Verschuure - Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Eckhard Beste - Hearsafe, Germany
Arja Boasson - Laren, The Netherlands
Olaf van Hees - CommitARBO, Diemen, The Netherlands
Jan de Laat - Leiden MC, The Netherlands
The sound levels present at the place of work for performing musicians, DJs, VJs or sound technicians often exceed the hearing safety levels. Many of these people are aware of this fact and actually notice the negative effects of extraneous sounds like tinnitus and hearing loss. However, they tend to deny these negative effects because they fear to lose their jobs. The denial is a problem in itself; ignoring the fact does enhance the chance of an early loss of job.
In this tutorial seminar panelists will introduce the auditory system, and the damage to the system that is caused by extraneous sounds. The effect of hearing loss will be demonstrated with regard to perceived sound quality and speech intelligibility in quiet and noisy environments. Possible rehabilitative measures and their limitations will be presented. It is concluded that protection is a far better solution than hearing rehabilitation.
To assess the protective needs some information is required on sound levels at stage. Information will be presented on actual sound levels during a performance. The problems relating to sound level measurement and interpretation in relation to the effect of aging will be presented. The protective needs can be concluded from this and practical advice will be given both with regard to hearing protection and hearing rehabilitation.
S3 STEREO AND SURROUND MICROPHONE TECHNIQUES
Chair: Geoff Martin - Bang & Olufsen A/S, Denmark
Jonathan Allen - Abbey Road Studios, UK
Florian Camerer - Östereichescher Rundfunk (ORF), Austria
Akira Fukada - Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), Japan
Jean-Marie Geijsen - Polyhymnia International, The Netherlands
This workshop is hosted by leading industry professionals from the areas of classical and film music, as well as radio drama. Issues to be discussed include the characteristics of various microphone configurations, managing stereo and multichannel recordings at the same session, and upwards-and-downwards compatibility considerations. This session will be of benefit to audio engineers of all backgrounds, including students.
Sunday, March 23
S4 BASICS OF ROOM ACOUSTICS
Presenter: Diemer de Vries Delft University, The Netherlands
In the chain recording-mixing/mastering-reproduction, the acoustic properties of three spaces play a role, First, there is the recording space, which can vary from open air via studios to cathedrals, all with their specific acoustical conditions. Then, there is the control room, often much smaller than the recording space, the acoustics of which should not obstruct a proper assessment of the recording. Finally, there is the reproduction space, often a living room but sometimes a larger space like a cinema. In the seminar it will be explained how acoustic properties of spaces can be specified by calculations or measurements acoustics is no black magic at all! and how these objective parameters relate to what we hear. Using these parameters, we will take a closer look at the spaces mentioned above, and see how we can use our insight in room acoustics at the benefit of audio practice.
S5 GROUNDING AND SHIELDING
Chair: Tony Waldron - UK
Keith Armstrong - Cherry Clough Consultants - UK
Jim Brown - Audio Systems Group - USA
Rick Chinn - USA
Ian McBurney - Allen & Heath - UK
Bill Whitlock - Jensen Transformers - USA
The design of high performance professional audio systems was never trivial, but since the development of microprocessor controlled equipment, switch-mode power conversion, and the expansion of VHF/UHF wireless public broadcasting and cell telephones, interference problems have escalated by several orders of magnitude. Fully shielded wiring between audio components (direct shield bonding at both ends) must now be reconsidered. We demonstrate that when current flows in the shield conductors of audio interconnection cables, hum and/or buzz interference need not be the natural outcome.
S6 MICROPHONE TECHNIQUE THEORY FOR STEREO AND SURROUND
Presenter: Geoff Martin - Bang & Olufsen A/S, Denmark
This tutorial workshop will present attendees with the theoretical response characteristics of various microphone configurations. In addition, a general understanding of the effects of changes in configurations and microphone selection on the reproduced sound stage will be provided. Simple mathematical analyses of various configurations will be used to clarify how coincident and spaced microphone pairs generate a desired output. Various textbook configurations will be discussed, as well as the effects of real-world factors such as off-axis frequency response and early reflections on image position and quality. The theoretical aspects will be illustrated with three dimensional visual plots made available to all attendees.
Monday, March 24
S7 MIXING AND MASTERING
Chair: Terry Nelson, Studio Equipment, Switzerland
This seminar includes a panel of leading industry professionals who will discuss various formats for mixing and mastering in surround.
Topics to be covered include:
mixing and mastering to the various multichannel formats, discrete channels and other solutions
Mixing for 5.1 vs. 6.0, 7.1 or 10.2
Multichannel mix recording formats in most common use and compatibility with mastering needs
Mixing and mastering monitor loudspeaker setup/formats and compatibility with common home theater setups in the
Essential tools for mixing and mastering in multichannel surround
Mix approaches and preferences: ambient surround vs. direct surround
Challenges of mastering for DVD-A
Challenges of mastering for SACD
Using stereo material for processing to multichannel
Audio and music examples will be played.
S8 WORKING WITH MICROPHONES A practical review
Presenter: Ron Streicher - Pacific AV Enterprises, USA
The focus of this seminar will be a hands-on demonstration of many of the practical aspects of using microphones: mounting hardware, shock isolation, pop screens, cables, powering systems, etc. Techniques for rigging or "flying" microphones and arrays also will be presented.
What will not be discussed is how or where to put a microphone for the best pickup of [insert your favorite instrument here.] That is an entirely different tutorial session. However, once you've chosen the microphone and its location, if you want to know how to get the microphone into that position most effectively and obtain optimum performance -- free from intrusive mechanical noises, wind pops or blasts, -- this seminar is for you.
Tuesday, March 25
S9 HOW TO SET UP 5.1 SURROUND
Presenters: Andrew Goldberg, Christophe Anet - Genelec, Finland
A modern audio production facility must be able to serve productions in a large number of different formats. The change from mono and stereo to multichannel reproduction has produced many problems, both in converting existing production facilities to multichannel format and in new installations.
The audio formats that must be handled by a modern production facility
S10 BASICS OF SOUND REINFORCEMENT
Presenter: Peter Swarte PAS, The Netherlands
Sound reinforcement is applied in places where groups of people are to be informed or entertained. Also, specialized sound systems exist to help ensure the safety of persons and their belongings - sound systems for emergency purposes.
In sound reinforcement systems microphones and loudspeakers are very often located in the same room. This can lead to highly irritating acoustic feed back (howling). Sometimes systems are driven close to acoustic feedback, resulting in speech unintelligibility and sound coloration.
This seminar offers an insight into the needed specification for a stable sound reinforcement system which meets also other requirements like speech intelligibility, frequency- and dynamic range. The stability of such systems is strongly dependent on the acoustics of the room and a careful choice of the system elements. Using a line up diagram as a guide, parts of these requirements are visualized. The benefits of using such a diagram are explained: The design of a system follows clear rules and has as secondary benefit that it logically leads to a measuring protocol.
Mathematics are kept to a minimum: The decibel notation plays the central role.