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Session I Monday, May 14 8:30 - 13:00 hr Room B

Watermarking & Internet Audio

Chair: Fons Bruekers, Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

8:30 hr I-1
Design and Implementation of a Real-Time Audio Service using MPEG-2 AAC and Streaming Technology
Jose Soler Lucas, Tae-jin Lee & Jin-woo Hong
ETRI, Taejon, Republic of Korea

During the last years a number of efforts have been done towards audio streaming. But among them, little has been done on MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding. Here we present the process by which we have built an AAC streaming service over RTP to be used in Internet. The result obtained is quite satisfactory and fulfils all our prospects.
Paper 5343

9:00 hr I-2
Audio Gateway Concept: Migration from Conventional Dedicated to IP Audio Transmissions
Detlef Wiese
Consultant, Hallbergmoos, Germany

How to cover the migration from point-to-point transmissions for contribution, distribution and other audio communication via E1, T1 or ISDN to IP-audio with low cost access to Virtual Private Networks. Quality of Service by ISPs can open the door to high quality professional audio links for production, archiving, broadcasting, reporting and many other applications. The proposed audio gateway concept is discussed regarding its flexibility in bit rate, quality, delay time, bandwidth as well as possibilities of new applications, such as connection events to Internet, ISDN to Intranet, format conversion and others.
Printed Paper not available

9:30 hr I-3
The Internet Applications of Embedded Metadata within Audio Watermarked Red Book Compact Discs
Sigmund Rothschild
University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA

Audio watermarking permits metadata to be encoded directly into digitized audio and video program materials. The University of Colorado at Denverís CAM Records will embed metadata by watermarking their current CD project using AudioTrackís technologies. ABX double blind testing will be used to evaluate the watermarkingís perceptual transparency. With the encoded CD, CAM Records will implement several applications of the embedded metadata within the context of their CD release, emphasizing the development of Internet strategies and uses of the embedded metadata.
Printed Paper not available

10:00 hr I-4
Combined Compression/Watermarking for Audio Signals
Frank Siebenhaar, Christian Neubauer & J¸rgen Herre
Fraunhofer IIS, Erlangen, Germany

Perceptual audio coding has become a customary technology for storage and transmission of audio signals. Audio watermarking enables the robust and imperceptible transmission of data within audio signals, thus allowing valuable information to be attached to the content, such as song title, name of the composer and artist or property rights related data. This paper describes a new concept for simultaneous low bit rate encoding and watermark embedding for audio signals. In particular, the advantages of this combined technique over separate steps of encoding and watermark embedding are discussed (i.e. encoding of watermarked PCM audio signals or watermarking of existing bit streams). Experimental results obtained from a first implementation of an extended MPEG-2/4 AAC encoder are shown.
Paper 5344

10:30 hr I-5
Robust, Multi-Functional, and High Quality Audio Watermarking Technology
Michiel Veen (1), Werner Oomen (2), Fons Bruekers (1), Jaap Haitsma (1), Ton Kalker (1) & Aweke Negash Lemma (2)
Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Philips ASA Labs, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Based on existing technology used in image and video watermarking, we have developed a robust, multi-functional and high-quality audio watermarking technique. The embedding algorithm operates in the frequency domain, where the magnitudes of the Fourier coefficients are slightly modified. Watermark detection relies on cross-correlation techniques, in which not only the presence of a watermark, but also its payload is detected. Experiments demonstrated that for this particular watermark, objective (ITU-R BS.1387) and subjective (ITU-R BS.1116) audio quality measures correlate fairly well. Combined analyses of the perceived audio quality and robustness indicated that specific watermark parameters may be optimized for different applications. These range from copy management (limited information capacity, high robustness, and very high audio quality) to broadcast monitoring (intermediate to large information capacity, intermediate robustness, intermediate to high audio quality).
Paper 5345

11:00 hr I-6
A Compatible Family of Bitstream Watermarking Schemes for MPEG-Audio
Christian Neubauer, Ralph Kulessa & J¸rgen Herre
Fraunhofer IIS, Erlangen, Germany

Audio watermarking enables the robust and imperceptible transmission of data within audio signals. Among the many possible applications of this technique, a number of scenarios require direct embedding of watermarks into a compressed signal representation. Such bitstream watermarking systems enable e.g. on-the-fly embedding of transaction specific data at the time of content delivery via the Internet. This paper extends previous work on bitstream watermarking for MPEG-2/4 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) towards a compatible family of watermarking schemes for MPEG-1/2 Layer-3 (MP3), MPEG-2/4 AAC and uncompressed audio. Regardless of the format used during data embedding, the same watermark extractor can be employed to recover the embedded message. Both the underlying concepts and relevant experimental results for these schemes are described.
Paper 5346

11:30 hr I-7
Full-Text Indexing of Very Large Audio Data Bases
Frank Kurth & Michael Clausen
University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

We present a system for indexing of and index-based search in PCM-based audio material. Given a short excerpt of a waveform signal as a query, the index returns all pieces in a database containing that waveform. Additionally, the precise position of the waveform within those pieces is returned. The indexing method is robust against several signal processing operations such as lossy compression or addition of noise. Indexing of a test database consisting of approx 10 GB of audio data results in an index of size 16 MB. Response times to queries of lengths of about one or a half of a second are only fractions of a second.
Paper 5347

12:00 hr I-8
Development of a Distance-Learning Environment, using Database Driven Dynamic Web Pages - Application for Digital Audio Internet Courses
Christos Sevastiadis, Costas Rizakos, George Kalliris, Charalampos Dimoulas & George Papanikolaou
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

The current work focuses on the development of a web-based user-friendly environment, for the design and management of distance learning courses. Its objective is to promote the simple web service to a dynamically refashioning, multimedia enabled tool in the hands of the tutor, offering advanced learning facilities to the trainees. Based on the core of previous work and the incorporation of contemporary technologies, such as a database server and a web portal application server, a system capable to manage numerous users and courses, to accommodate many new services and to provide new means of communication has been brought up. The system is currently being evaluated through a digital audio distance-learning course that is offered via the Internet to the students of our department.
Paper 5348

12:30 hr I-9
Online Archives - the Pressure of Metadata
Siegbert Herla
Institut f¸r Rundfunktechnik (IRT), Munich, Germany

For an economic realization of future online archives working in a global network structure the right course shall be set. Therefore already during the digitization and capturing process of single sound carrier archives the registration of relevant metadata attention shall be paid besides the re-recording of sound and video data. The description of sound and video content, their technical quality, cue sheet and status information are also important as a unique material identifier for a world-wide unique identification of source material. In addition the continuous gathering of metadata shall accompany the audio and video material on the road. A platform independent container such as the BWF file is used to gather all the helpful information on the way.
Paper 5349


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