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Session E Sunday, May 13 9:00 - 12:30 hr Room B

Spatial Perception and Processing

Chair: Durand Begault, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA

9:00 hr E-1
Determination of Influence of Visual Cues on Perception of Spatial Sound
Piotr Odya, Andrzej Czyzewski & Bozena Kostek
Technical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland

The paper contains a description of experiments that aim to determine visual cue influence on the perception of spatial sound. Earlier stage of the carried out experiments showed that there exists a relationship between the perception of video presented in the screen and sound signals reproduced in a surround system. However, this relationship is dependent on the type of audio-visual signals. Thus a series of subjective test has been performed on dozens of experts in order to discover these dependencies. The main issue in such experiments is the analysis of the influence of visual cues on the perception of the surround sound. Conclusions concerning the complexity of the investigated problem are included.
Paper 5311

9:30 hr E-2
Room Masking: Understanding and Modelling the Masking of Reflections in Rooms
Jrg Buchholz (1), Jens Blauert (1) & John Mourjopoulos (2)
 Institute of Communicationacoustics, Bochum, Germany
 University of Patras, Patras, Greece

For human listeners, many of the reflections generated inside rooms are masked by the direct signal and other reflections. To describe such masking, a multidimensional function is introduced, which determines the Reflection Masking Threshold (RMT). Based on this function, a perceptual model is developed, which can evaluate the audibility of reflections, as it is described in examples derived from simulated rooms.
Paper 5312

10:00 hr E-3
Psychophysically-Derived Control of Source Range for the Pioneer Sound Field Controller
William Martens, Michael Cohen & Kuniaki Honno
University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan

A psychophysically-derived control for the perceived range of a virtual sound source was implemented for the Pioneer Sound Field Controller (PSFC), a spatial auditory display employing a 15-loudspeaker hemispherical array. Capable of presenting two independent sound sources moving within a simulated reverberant environment, the PSFC primitives include parameters to manipulate source azimuth and elevation, and also the size and liveness of the simulated space. As accurate control of virtual source range was confounded by variations in both the liveness parameter and in overall PSFC channel volume, an empirical approach was employed to derive a Look-Up Table (LUT) inverting the average range estimates obtained from a group of human subjects who listened to a set of virtual sources (short speech samples).
Paper 5313

10:30 hr E-4
CARROUSO - A European Approach to 3D-Audio
Sandra Brix, Jan Plogsties & Thomas Sporer
Fraunhofer IIS, Ilmenau, Germany

This paper introduces the activities and technical steps of an interdisciplinary European project called CARROUSO. This name stands for "creating, assessing and rendering in real time of high quality audio-visual environments in MPEG-4 context". The key objective of this project is to provide a novel technology that enables the transfer of a sound field, generated at a certain real or virtual space, to another usually remote located space. New modeling, recording, encoding, decoding and rendering techniques, which support and implement this technology will be discussed.
Paper 5314

11:00 hr E-5
Auditory Periphery, HRTF's and Directional Loudness Perception
Nick Zacharov 1, Gaetan Lorho 2 & Olli Tuomi (2)
 Nokia Research Center, Tampere, Finland
 Nokia Research Center, Helsinki, Finland

This paper examines how various aspects of the physical characteristics of the human head and torso affect directional loudness characteristics. Modeled directional characteristics are presented based upon the head related transfer functions (HRTF) of a number of individuals in conjunction with the Moore loudness model. Data is presented in the frontal, horizontal and median planes. Variations between individuals are explored as are the difference between near and far field HRTF's. The contributions of the pinna, head and torso are examined separately.
Paper 5315

11:30 hr E-6
A Scalable Spatial Sound Rendering System
David Murphy (1) & Francis Rumsey (2)
 UCC Cork, Cork, Ireland
 University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

The spatial rendering of sound in Virtual Reality systems can quickly become a computationally expensive process. The author proposes a Spatial Sound rendering system that allows for the graceful degradation of spatial quality based upon scaling parameters. The parameters are a combination of both physical and perceptual attributes. The Scalable Spatial Sound Rendering system is divided into three User-Profiles; Professional, Prosumer and Consumer, where each profile is composed of a number of varying levels of quality. Typical applications for this scalable framework include Mobile-VR systems and Personal VR systems based upon standard multimedia PCs. One of the main advantages of this scalable architecture is that the audio content is only created once and is appropriately scaled for the end user - write once read many.
Paper 5316

12:00 hr E-7
A Framework for Evaluating Virtual Acoustic Environments
Tapio Lokki (1), Lauri Savioja (1) & Jarmo Hiipakka (2)
 Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
 Nokia Research Center, Helsinki, Finland

A new evaluation framework for virtual acoustic environments (VAE) is introduced. The framework is based on the comparison of real-head recordings with physics-based room acoustic modeling and auralization. The real-head recording procedure and VAE creation method are discussed and new signal processing structures for auralization are introduced. As a case study, recordings were made in a classroom which was also modeled and auralized.
Paper 5317


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