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Challenges of Distributed Real-Time Finite-Difference Time-Domain Room Acoustic Simulation for Auralization

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Large-scale wave-based room acoustic simulations are commonly considered computationally expensive. Dis-tributed computing can be used to accommodate such methods for wide-bandwidth simulation, but may pose several challenges for real-time execution, such as communication and synchronization latencies between the computing hardware. In this paper, a system for real-time auralization of distributed ?nite-difference time-domain room acoustic simulation is proposed. Several experiments are conducted to measure the performance of the system. A proof-of-concept application where simulated responses from the distributed system are streamed to a virtual reality scene and auralized is constructed. It is found that distributed computing scales well with large off-line simulations, but synchronization latencies become a limiting factor in the implementation of a real-time system.

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The Number of Virtual Loudspeakers and the Error for Spherical Microphone Array Recording and Binaural Rendering

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Spherical microphone array recording and binaural rendering (SMARBR) is a spatial audio technique. It is implemented by firstly using Ambisonics (beamforming) scheme to decode the outputs of microphone array to the loudspeaker signals, and then further transferring the loudspeaker signals into binaural signals via virtual loudspeaker scheme. The present work evaluates the influence of number of loudspeakers on the error in binaural pressures for SMARBR. The results indicate that, for a given order of Ambisonics scheme, when the number of virtual loudspeakers exceeds the minimal requirement, on average, increasing number of virtual loudspeakers appropriately reduces the mean error around and above the high frequency limit imposed by spatial sampling theorem.

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Effect of Individualized Head-Related Transfer Functions on Distance Perception in Virtual Reproduction for a Nearby Source

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Head-related transfer function (HRTF) is affected by anatomic parameters of an individual subject, and thus it is worthy noticing in virtual reproduction based on the HRTF signal processing. This work aims to find out, in the virtual reproduction system through a pair of headphones, the effect of individual cue of HRTF on auditory distance perception for a nearby sound source by means of psychoacoustic experiments. The individualized HRTFs and non-individualized HRTFs of 6 subjects, at 7 distances ranging from 0.2 m to 1.0 m and 5 lateral azimuths ranging from 45? to 135? in the horizontal plane, were convolved with white noise and used as stimulus signals. The results of psychoacoustic experiments indicate that the individual cue of HRTF has non-significant effect on auditory distance perception of nearby sources, and thus it could be unworthy of much concern in virtual reproduction for most of the occasions.

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Controlling the Apparent SourceSize in Ambisonics Using Decorrelation Filters

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The apparent source extent, de?ned as the perceived sound source size, is a common parameter for 3D audio applications, such as VR, 3D cinema and spatialized music composition. Here, we present a new method for achieving this effect for Ambisonics, which targets the minimization of the interaural cross-correlation coef?cient. This is achieved by reducing the Ambisonic order and rotating decorrelated copies of the original stream into an equidistant con?guration. Comparisons to previous methods as well as different ?lter parameters and parameter curves are discussed for both binaural and multichannel speaker systems. Preliminary results indicate that this method is able to stable images, particularly in the gradual change in source size and listening area stability.

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Sound Field Renderer with Loudspeaker Array Using Real-Time Convolver

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In this study, a sound ?eld renderer which can create the virtual sound ?eld by input of the real-world sound is developed. The system consists of 24 channels loudspeaker array, 4 channels microphones, and a real-time convolver. The audio signals received at microphones are convoluted in real time with the impulse responses calculated by the sound ?eld rendering. The rendering model of Yamaha hall in Tokyo is made. The calculated reverberation curve and the measured one show good agreement. The delay time of the system was evaluated as 7.8 ms, which may not affect the perception. It is shown that the renderer is possible to produce the virtual sound ?eld in high presence.

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Proposal of a Sound Source Separation Method Using Image Signal Processing of a Spatio-Temporal Sound Pressure Distribution Image

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This paper proposes a sound source separation method using image signal processing and a microphone array. First, a spatio-temporal sound pressure distribution (STSPD) image is formed based on microphone outputs. Two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT) transforms this image into a spectrum, in which sounds from different directions are separated into the components on different lines naturally. To separate sound sources, every line in the spectrum is extracted and 2D inverse FFT is applied. A method to restore a ?ne STSPD image from the sparse-microphone array is also proposed. Although the basic performance of the proposed method is comparable to a conventional delay and sum array, methods that are more sophisticated can be applied for improved performance.

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Acoustic Characteristics of Headphones and Earphones

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Comparison of acoustic characteristics of headphones and earphones is a major concern during design or product selection. There are several specifications for the acoustic characteristics, such as frequency response, impedance, sensitivity, and so on. They rarely provide hints for a comparison between devices. In this study, we compared headphones and earphones by acoustical measurements to find the acoustical factors that explain the characteristics of headphones and earphones. Impulse response, correlation factors, and psychoacoustic factors were analyzed. The difference among headphones and earphones were represented by magnitude of the interaural cross-correlation function, effective duration of the autocorrelation function, and so on.

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Evaluation of Robustness of Dynamic Crosstalk Cancellation for Binaural Reproduction

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Binaural reproduction/synthesis is one of promising ways to present spatial auditory space to a listener. Generally, binaural signals can be reproduced by a set of headphones. An alternative way for presentation of binaural signals is to use loudspeakers without wearing any equipment like headphones by employing so called crosstalk cancellation (CTC). A CTC system is realized by inverse filters, i.e. CTC filters, which cancel transfer functions between loudspeakers and both ears. However, coefficients of CTC filters vary with listener’s position and orientation, thereby resulting in a quite small sweet spot and forcing a listener to be still while listening. Therefore, the authors have been developing dynamic CTC system using head tracking and real-time filter generation which allows the listener to move and rotate his/her head freely. However, optimal positions of loudspeakers for dynamic CTC for a single listener system have not been clarified. In this paper, we use a spherical loudspeaker array to evaluate impacts of loudspeaker arrangement on robustness of CTC system.

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Quality Discrimination on High-Resolution Audio with Difference of Quantization Accuracy by Sound-Image Localization

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High-resolution audio has finer resolution for time and magnitude than conventional CD audio. However, it is unclear whether people perceive the difference of sound quality of high-resolution with conventional CD audio. Previous studies of high-resolution audio to clarify the point employed subjects with only musicians. Therefore, this report employed non-musicians as listeners on listening experiment, where listeners were asked to rate the sound image localization due to the difference of quantization accuracy. Results confirmed that five out of ten people can correctly discriminate the sound image localization, being confirmed as significant by chi-squared test. The average of correct answer rate of all subjects was 46.88% (chance level is 33.33%),being confirmed that non-musicians were able to identify difference of quantization.

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Three-Dimensional Large-Scale Loudspeaker Array System Using High-Speed 1-Bit Signal for Immersive Sound Field Reproduction

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The physically control a high-precision or wide-area sound ?eld requires a highly complex reproduction system owing to the large number of loudspeakers required. Previously, we developed a 256-ch planar loudspeaker system with simple electrical circuits by using high-speed 1-bit signals. In this study, we proposed a 320-ch three-dimensional loudspeaker system by extending the previous developed system. Introducing ARM/FPGA SoC has made it possible to control a large number of audio signals via Linux OS. To investigate a reproducible sound ?eld using the proposed system, a preliminary experiment was conducted by simulation of sound ?eld reproduction with Wave Field Synthesis and Near-Field Compensated Higher Order Ambisonics.

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                 Search Results (Displaying 1-10 of 68 matches)
AES - Audio Engineering Society