Based on existing technology used in image and video watermarking, we have developed a robust, multi-functional and high-quality audio watermarking technique. The embedding algorithm operates in the frequency domain, where the magnitudes of the Fourier coefficients are slightly modified. Watermark detection relies on cross-correlation techniques, in which not only the presence of a watermark, but also its payload is detected. Experiments demonstrated that for this particular watermark, objective (ITU-R BS.1387) and subjective (ITU-R BS.1116) audio quality measures correlate fairly well. Combined analyses of the perceived audio quality and robustness indicated that specific watermark parameters may be optimized for different applications. These range from copy management (limited information capacity, high robustness, and very high audio quality) to broadcast monitoring (intermediate to large information capacity, intermediate robustness, intermediate to high audio quality).
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