The dominant nonlinear distortions in loudspeakers, headphones, and other actuators are predictable and closely related to the general principle, particular design, materials, and assembling techniques applied to the transducer. The distortion analyzer uses novel system identification techniques to measure the large signal parameters of the expanded loudspeaker model, the instantaneous state signals, and the distortion components generated by each nonlinearity. This information is crucial for assessing the performance of a transducer in the large signal domain as well as for finding the physical causes of the distortion to improve the transducer with respect to the sound quality, weight, size, and cost.:
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