The usable gain of speech reinforcement systems has often been described as limited by the frequency-phase characteristics of the components or by the directivity characteristics of the transducers. It has been shown that by empirical modification of transfer characteristics, high gains can be achieved-but only in fixed installations. Optimization of portable systems requires theory assisting the design of equipment that anticipates wide variations in room conditions. In particular, the frequency characteristics of the transducers can be controlled to reduce howlback, and the tendency to create howlback can be measured.
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