The traditional method of predicting the acoustical field produced by an arbitrarily shaped source is a high-frequency, angle-limited reduction of the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz equation. The broadband, broad-angle version of the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz equation is derived and implemented as a numerical method. Acoustical field predictions of real sources developed with this method agree closely with measured data. This agreement even extends to low frequencies and angles near and beyond 90 degrees off of the primary axis. Applications of the technique are described, including a powerful and efficient directional response characterization method.:
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