Subwoofers are used as a part of both two-channel and multichannel domestic sound reproduction systems, both with and without bass redirection. Room effects and a lack of convenient means for setting the subwoofer level make system setup difficult. The objective and subjective effects on subwoofer performance are evaluated. The room acoustic transfer function was evaluated for eight rooms, and the amount of low-frequency acoustic gain and loudspeaker interaction was measured. Subjective experiments were conducted to assess the effect of low-frequency room acoustics by applying the measured room impulse response to program material reproduced over headphones. Subwoofer level calibration using both program material and test signals was studied, and specific recommendations were made.:
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