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0 dB FS + Levels in Digital Mastering

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A sine tone at 0 dB FS is often believed to be the maximum level obtainable from a digital medium. Therefore, it is typically the maximum-level digital filters and analog circuitry in consumer equipment that are aimed at reproducing. As the authors have shown in previous papers, intersample peaks may be considerably higher than 0 dB FS. This paper examines the sonic consequences when 0 dB FS + signals are reproduced in typical consumer equipment. The performance of a variety of domestic CD players exposed to such signals are presented and evaluated.:

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AES - Audio Engineering Society