Part One: Locanthi's horn analog is used to model a transmission line loudspeaker system. This circuit can accommodate arbitrary flare shapes and allows damping to be included as any combination of series and parallel losses. Four empirical parameters are derived to simulate the effects of lining or stuffing. The resulting model accurately predicts the behavior of varied transmission line systems.: : Part Two: The computer model described in Part One was used to investigate a variety of transmission lines. Eight units were built and tested with assorted damping materials. With the proper combination of loudspeaker, pipe geometry, and damping, a transmission line can match the frequency response and efficiency of a closed box having the same volume, but with reduced cone excursion.
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