This paper reviews and compares several techniques for 2-D or 3-D sound panning over loudspeakers as well as their application for efficient 3-D spatialization over headphones. Ambisonics and pair-wise intensity or amplitude panning approaches are discussed and compared with improved approaches to binaural synthesis. The performance of the different techniques is evaluated, both by the use of objective criteria of auditory localization and by their ability to reproduce interaural time differences and HRTF spectral cues at the listener's ears.
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